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A Better Match for Me

It’s been close to a month since I’ve been taking these Semenax pills, and I love the results they’ve produced. The story of how I started taking them is a little funny and sad at the same time. A girl that I was dating told me that I wasn’t very good in bed and stopped seeing me. I was so mad to hear her say that, but there wasn’t much I could do about it, or so I originally thought. After my anger passed, I started looking for ways to improve my situation.

The discovery of the pills turned out to be the miracles answer for my problem. Just one for each time that I have a little intimate time with a woman is all I need to have a good time. I couldn’t exactly use the pills with the girl that I had been dating before because she moved on from me, so I had to find another partner.

Getting the Programming Package That Fits Our Family

I knew that I was going to go with Directv mainly because of the great deals they were offering to new customers. What I did not know was which package I was going to go with. I decided to compare packages today because I had some free time earlier, so I went online to see which programming package was the best choice for my family. My husband loves to watch anything to do with sports, and I enjoy cooking shows, programs that show DIY projects, news, and comedies. We have three children, and their interests in television programming are quite different from one another’s too.

My oldest child loves to watch anything to do with crime drama. He enjoys the hour long drama shows that are on the major networks in the evenings and also in syndication throughout the day on quite a few channels.

Going to Do Without My Cable Tv

I have been thinking about giving up cable and wondering how much of a hassle it would be to have no pay TV at all. Of course I am thinking that I am going to be okay until it gets to be football and basketball season. At that point I am probably going to have serious problems because you get games all of the time on pay TV, but there is not any analog for when it comes to sports. Paying ten dollars a month for all of the movies that you want is pretty easy. I will probably keep my netflix and use it even more than I did in the past. In fact live sports is probably the only thing that keeps a lot of people paying for cable.

Saving Money As Well As the Planet

I wanted to find out about the different plans that Stream Energy has for Texas customers. I looked online for an additional resource, which is exactly what I found. The reason I wanted Stream was because they are the same company that provided my electricity when I lived in Pennsylvania. I was really happy when I saw that Texas is another state that they service, but I wanted to make sure that the plans were comparable to what I had when I was living in Pennsylvania. I was able to find a website that had detailed information about the different plans that they offer to Texas customers, and that is when I knew that I was going to stay with them.

A Relief to Find a New Company

I became a very eager and willing customer of Suddenlink recently when I came across them after moving to the area, surprisingly myself to find a cable company whom I hadn’t heard of before. I was actually super taken back, wondering if I was even reading the name of the company right and convincing myself that they probably didn’t even offer a cable service! Lo’ and behold I found a company that wasn’t Comcast or Time Warner as if the heavens themselves had parted and given way to some sort of miracle. It’s sad but that is honestly how I felt about it.

I don’t want any part of Comcast nor Time Warner any longer.

Deals on Brazilian Body Wave Extensions

I am sorely in need of some hair extensions because I want my hair to be longer than it currently is, and I do not have time to let it grow out. Even if I did let it grow out, it would not look as good as the extensions I am looking at right now. I know that because I have grown it out pretty long before, and my hair just has issues when it gets that long. Not sure why it doesn’t cooperate but I want to buy curly hair extensions to put into my hair and to make it longer and look very nice and pretty.

After looking around for awhile, I am pretty sure that these are my favorite extensions that I have seen and I want to buy them for my hair.

How I Finally Lost Weight

I have been heavy most of my life. I can’t even count on both hands how many honest attempts I have made at eating better. Sometimes, I can go for a week or so, and other times I am lucky to make it through two days. Something happens though, and I fall off the wagon pretty fast. The main reason is because I was always feeling hungry on each diet that I attempted, and that was always my eventual downfall. A friend showed me some honest Ideal Shape reviews, and that gave me the motivation to try one more time to lose weight.

I actually went into this last attempt feeling a bit hopeful because of everything that I had read.

Two Way Communication made Easier

A two way communication is made much quicker, cheaper, and simpler with a Two Way Radio, which is a device capable of transferring as well as receiving at the same time. It works on a dual frequency system. Unlike a broadcast, it is a Transceiver. A very common example of such a device is our very own cell phone. AM (Amplitude Modulation) Radios are another example of this duplex communication, extensively used in Aircraft communications for navigating etc. FM or Frequency Modulation is used in radios, but again this is a one way communication or a ‘broadcast’.

In the same category of FM, the conventional radio types may be Family Radio Service or FRS, but in this case, FM is used for a two way communication, and not merely a Broadcast. Since it is a very low cost substitute for communication, it has gained wide popularity with Business communication also.

For communication to take place there may be ‘Simplex’ or ‘Duplex’ channels. The former uses a single channel for communication, whereas, on the latter, two different channels are used for communication. The Simplex radio Communication is very popular with the aircraft VHF AM and the marine radios; whereas mobile phone networks use duplex communication. A specific quality about the Duplex Communication is that it requires a proper infrastructure for its operations to take place. There may also be a Hybrid of the above two which can alternate between the two functions.

There are also analog and digital two way radios, the latter being a very complex one to handle. An example of the Digital Radio may be Motorola’s MOTOTBRO, and of the analog may a simple walkie talkie used by families etc.

These days, the two way communication has gained a lot of popularity due to its cheap cost and less maintenance costs. One can use the walkie talkies very conveniently at home, to communicate with the family folks for dinner, in the garden, etc. Also, it is most widely used in office buildings, malls etc. where the area of the building is so huge that it needs many security guards, and it is a very common sight when we see Security Personnel communicating with each other over these walkie talkies. The more complex and advanced Two Way communication is used within the police services.

A very important feature of the Two Way Communication Devices is that most of them use a battery eliminator, making them a very portable device. Many new accessories have come up in the market to enhance the communication advantages in order to give the customer a better experience with the gadgets, for instance, if one has a Motorola Radio, one can always go for Motorola Radio Accessories. Two way communications is indeed a great advantage for communication.

Purchase ICOM Walkie Talkie And Radios For Effective Communication

When in school, we are taught about the importance of communication. We are made to learn the basics of communication and how it is necessary in our daily lives. The scale of learning about communication during school time might not be that broad, but, when we grow up and start living our professional life, it is then we actually understand its importance. No job is complete without effective communication. Whether you own a business or work with a transportation company, you would be aware of the significance of communication and the use of efficient communication devices to execute the daily tasks.

In past few decades, we have seen many changes in terms of technology. Ways of communication have changed and so have, the modes of communicating. I am referring to the high-technology devices that have simplified the entire process of communication when it comes to the personal or professional usage. Remember the good old days, when people used walkie-talkies and radios for establishing contact? Although technology has progressed in the past couple of years, but, the existence of these two devices remain the same. Massively used for marine applications, radios are specifically designed for connecting across waters. Available in hand-held and mounted types, radios are extremely convenient as they can be taken from one place to the other. Also used for public safety, transportation & delivery service users and businesses & multiple industries, radios are widely applauded for their multiple-mode operations, flexible installation and excellent sound quality.

So, if you are looking for communication device for your transportation business, then go for an efficient & lightweight radio. However, make sure that it is of a renowned brand like ICOM. ICOM, founded in the year 1954, is an international manufacturer of radio transmitting and receiving equipment. Bagging customers from all over the world, owing to its top-class product range, ICOM now offers equipment for pilots, radio amateurs, land mobile professional applications, maritime applications and radio scanner enthusiasts.

Look online for stores that proffer ICOM walkie Talkie, ICOM radio and radio Batteries and other communication products, at reasonable rates. Offered in a varied range of models with multiple specifications, ICOM products are manufactured in adherence to the preset industry standards, to meet the varied client needs. Furthermore, these are tested for quality, before being introduced in the market so that clients don’t have to deal with any communication issue. ICOM is a name that you can trust, but firstly, analyze your requirements and be sure of what you want.

Benefits of Effective Data and Voice Network Design Installation at Your Workplace

Here’s hoping that these aforementioned points would give you ample reasons as to why you should choose a developed networking system at your workplace.

If you’re based in the Calgary, you will understand the need to have the proficient commercial data and voice network design installation as the place is one of the most prominent metropolitans in Canada.

If you desire to live up to the standards of the ever-growing economy and technology in Calgary, it holds significance to adopt certain technical advancements and have the plush amenities at your workplace. So, voice and data cabling in the perfect manner is one of the ways to remain constant with the progressive industries.
One of the questions that people have in their minds is  how does this help to grow their business or  company? Read on to know about the some  advantages to  that operational data and voice network has on your business.

Benefits of data and voice networking at your workplace:

Contented & stress-free Privacy:

It is a proven fact that people working in the open-style offices with low levels of voice network have experienced remarkably bigger amounts of stress. The reason being, the highly distracting office conversations that leads to the disturbing element at the workstation. Excellent data and voice network installation reduce the distractions to provide contended and stress-free privacy.

Better levels of Privacy:

This process enhances the level of your office privacy in two different ways:

1. Better level of privacy per decibel of sound

2. The treated area has consistent level of privacy

Subtle and non-intervening Privacy:

The advanced voice system permits you to operate at notably lower levels of sound. However, it still maintains the effectiveness with more privacy per decibel of sound.

Skilful engagement of Privacy:

The masking sound which is in the open area will strictly remain within the office area. There will be no unwanted voice effect in the enclosed areas or conference rooms of your office. If you require masking in  the enclosed sphere, a separate zone can be created with each  levels monitored independently.

Privacy, that is fairly affordable:

The voice network design installation and masking system is much more cost-effective as compared to the other methods of enhancing privacy.

The bottom line:

Here are a few advantages provided by a good data and voice network in an offices. Find a suitable company to fix your workplace issues related to data networking.

Choose MPLS VPN Service to Run a Successful Business


MPLS VPN is a flexible and reliable network channel in order to make scalable network that have good safety feature. It is a suitable alternative for clients who need to change from the standard systems to something more effective and more adaptable for a VPN-based system solution. MPLS VPN system could most likely convey your organization to an enhanced or improved level. Having an effective MPLS VPN to support you implies you will not need to spend lots of money in improving your own industry with different sorts of costly advertising aids. You ought to pick MPLS VPN to get successful business.

Reliability feature is undoubtedly an exceptionally significant element. This is because once the system encounters any downturn, the client is advised as soon as possible, that is before and resolution procedure is begun, while the client is reliably redesigned for any advancement made. By this steady checking is guaranteed as gifted architects and staff see to it that clients do not experience any more downtime. The hard-hitting business sector of Information Communication Technologies is forceful; this puts the item’s components and services on the edge. This completely outsourced MPLS VPN technology replaces Layer Two Switch Network conventional and Wide Area Network technologies. It gives veritable security in its capacity to right and distinguish issues identified with building up site connection before it influences the system and its services.

This service makes expansive venture arrangement. There are numerous approaches to experience the best advantages of MPLS VPN technology. MPLS VPN permits you to exploit broad broadband access accessibility and additionally rapid connectivity that it gives to the clients of the system. It likewise supplements the needs in conjunction with natural adaptability so that business applications can depend on elite rate amid its capacity. These traits make the entire VPN transform fairly more convoluted, unreasonable and time-consuming as it appears to be, yet not in the slightest degree. They work in the accurate inverse way.

Designers and architecture specialists and also IT staffs are all tested in the way this technology move down client desires and business application needs. The system expenses are excessively commonplace for the scattered businesses of all businesses. MPLS VPN is practical and permits solidification of business applications on a specific private system in its administration, and has up to 5 Classes of Service. MPLS joins the execution of WAN technologies with the expense viability and adaptability of the Internet based systems. This service is the most suitable arrangement regarding the matter of ease connectivity concerns of the connection. Additionally, the built in capabilities give access to business interchanges, data and other sharing requests.

Right away there are Layer 2, 2.5 and 3 technologies connected with MPLS that try to further enhance the correspondence channels between destinations having a place with the same business furthermore to improve client acknowledgement of such a system. Interestingly, there are a large number of web clients around the globe who are posting data on the web, making sites and so on without even an insight of the way that most enormous businesses are represented by the MPLS VP systems. The right answer for your business is a MPLS VPN!

Communication is the key to success

We are all different people when it comes down to our personalities, the only thing that binds us together is communication. With the increase of Information Technology globally, communication can be done through various medium such as Cell phones, Voice mails, Emails, Instant Messengers, Internet, Web Conferencing, etc. Every communication medium has its own advantages and disadvantages. No matter what the medium, it is the Communication style that helps the information flow from one person to aother . Each of us have a unique communication style that we use in our personal and professional lives. According to Cheryl Hamilton in her bookCommunicating for Results, “Managers, employees, and customers typically use four styles when communicating: the closed, blind, hidden, and open styles.”

The Closed style, consist of people who don’t like to interact with others. These are hardworking and productive people that are comfortable working with things rather than people. The Blind style requires low-feedback and are a overconfident group. The Hidden style communicators are good listeners. They are a people person, they expect everyone to get along without any conflicts. The Open style communicators like to overly express themselves. This group tend to fall on the high-disclosure, high-feedback ends of the communication style quadrant.

According to the ‘Survey of Communication Styles – Long Form’, my style of communication is ‘Blind’. I completely agree with the survey, it matches my personality in general life and at work. I usually know what I want, there is never any doubt where I stand. I am very organized, loyal, and dependable. I usually have answers for everything, or find answers on the way of solving the issue. Things that can be an issue with me is that, I can be very demanding, I am impatient and not a good listener. I may seem arrogant and over confident at times, which might not be acceptable to people I work with or deal with at times.

PhD Fellowship in Language and comunication at the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Amsterdam, Netherlands  

The Amsterdam Center for Language and Communication focuses on the description and explanation of variation in language and language use. A key feature of the ACLC approach is that linguistic phenomena are studied from the widest possible variety of perspectives, both descriptive and theoretical, in order to ensure that the findings are not accidental, but are truly representative of the basic parameters that govern the organization of natural languages. The ACLC includes both functional and formal approaches to language description and encourages dialogue between these approaches. Studies cover all aspects of speech and languages: phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. Language typology, including that of creole and signed languages, plays an important part in the ACLC programme. Language variation in terms of time, space and context is another specialisation. The study of variation in the different types of language user – from the child learning her first language to the adult second language learner including also different types of language pathology – is also a clear focus.

Starting on 1 September 2012, the Amsterdam Center for Language and Communication has up to two four-year PhD positions available for excellent candidates with an excellent research proposal

The PhD candidate at the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Amsterdam will be appointed for 4 years for 0,8 fte under de terms of the employment currently valid for the Faculty. In the first instance, a contract will be given for 16 months, with an extension for the following 32 months on the basis of a positive evaluation.
The salary for the position (on a full-time base) will be € 2042 during the first year (gross per month) and will reach € 2612 during the fourth year, in accordance with the CAO for Dutch universities.

Job Description
The PhD proposal should fit within the ACLC research programme The Language Blueprint, preferably also within the research focus area Learnability. Proposals furthermore focusing on foreign languages taught at the University of Amsterdam are specifically invited. Your research proposal should follow the guidelines available at the ACLC website.

The ACLC website provides further information on how to submit your proposal (see under Vacancies).

MA in linguistics (or equivalent), obtained no longer than five years ago.

Application Procedure
Further information about the application procedure can be obtained from the managing director of the research institute dr. Els Verheugd-Daatzelaar, phone +31.20.525.2543, e-mail: E.A.B.M.Verheugd-Daatzelaar@uva.n.

Submission Deadline
You can apply for one of the PhD positions to be filled per September 1st 2012, by submitting your own proposal before Tuesday January 17th 2012 (January 16th 23:59 at the latest). Submissions of a proposal should be sent to the director of the ACLC, prof. dr P.C. Hengeveld. They should be submitted electronically to the address Applications received after this date or those that are incomplete will not be taken into consideration.

Website Link


Communication concept and its organisational function


Communication is discussed in this paper so that it can enlighten the reader to grasp some ideas on it. Communication is used throughout our life and all human beings and even animals communicate through various forms that they are enabled by nature. Communication is as old as human history and it has developed depending on the culture of the exiting society that was concerned. Apart from what has been various definitions of communication in short we can define it as a process of transmitting ideas, information and attitudes by use of symbols, action, words, pictures, figures from the source to a receiver for the purpose of influencing with objective. In that case communication can be verbal or non verbal. Models and theories that govern communication are reviewed in this paper. Model as opposed to theory is a symbolic way at looking at systems to help us to think about them more lucidly while theory is the body of rules, ideas, principles, and techniques that applies to a subject, especially when seen as distinct from actual practice. So a model is a representation and a theory is an explanation. Communication in the organization is also discussed and its role for the existence of the organization. In the organization communication is as important as the blood in the body of an organism. Communication is also classified to formal and informal. Communication is formal when it follows the proper channels of communication in the organization such as Organization Structure or channel chart and informal when cuts across the organizational structure and it is everywhere in the organization. Channels of communication in the organization is reveled where they refers how the information is transmitted from the source to the destination. There are three channels of information which are downward, upward and hybrid/mixed. In order communication to be effective it needs some characteristics where some of these characteristics are also reviewed in this paper. In nourishing the work various literatures were reviewed during preparation of this work largely on models and theories as propounded by theorists appended below.


Communication is used throughout our life. All human beings and even animals communicate through various forms that they are enabled by nature. Sometimes we think that communication is performed by human being only, this is erroneous assumption. Animals, insects, birds and other organisms also communicate in their forms they have. It is also thought that communication is performed by using sounds or language. This is not; communication for human being is performed by symbols, actions, sounds, words, pictures and figures. For animals and other organisms mentioned above use fewer forms’ including actions, sounds and other forms which may not be known by human beings.

If we try to trace the origin of communication we come to notice that from when human societies were emerging in ancient time communication was there. There were for instance ancient societies like Egyptians, Chinese, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Anglo-Saxons, Aztecs, Red Indians and many more that in their daily activities they were communicating. In that case we can say communication is as old as human history. It has developed depending on the culture of the exiting society that was concerned. Communication then is a cultural aspect of any society. Many literatures and even scriptures stipulate that it is communication that enabled human to civilize rapidly compared to other creatures. Researches prove that effective communication is the road map to enhance civilization and development. This paper intends to explore communication as performed by human being and specifically in the organization.


The word Communication has been derived from the Latin word ‘Communis ” which means to make Common. Wilbur Schramm conceptualizes it as sharing of experiences on the basis of commonness while Mc Quail said communication is the process which increases commonality. Others conceptualize communication as an exchange of facts, ideas, or opinions by two or more persons (Newman & Summer). It is the exchange of information and transmission of meaning (Katz & Khan).  Scholars like Aristotle and Plato have termed the process of communication as Rhetoric. From the very beginning communication was seen as a process in which the speaker constructed messages to be transmitted to the receiver to bring about a desired response in his or her receiver.

Communications is all about the giving, receiving, processing and interpretation of information. It is a process of transmitting ideas, information and attitudes by use of symbols, action, words, pictures, figures from the source to a receiver for the purpose of influencing with objective.


Communication can be broadly divided into two categories. These are:

  • Verbal Communication
  • Non-verbal Communication

Verbal Communication

It is when words are used as tools of interaction between two or more individuals. It can be oral or written. Researchers have found that, on an average, a person spends 10 to 11 hours every day in verbal communication i.e. speaking, listening, reading or writing. Some common forms of verbal communication are conversations, speeches, letters, newspapers, magazines, cassettes both audio and video, telephonic conversation etc.

Non-Verbal Communication

When the alarm clock rings in the morning, it communicates to you the message that it is time to wake up. Communication can also occur without words. Our senses, ears, eyes, touch and smell work as codes of communication. You look out of the window, your eyes tell you about the weather outside. When you hold your cup of tea in your hands, the touch tells you whether the tea is warm or not. The smell tells you what is cooking for breakfast. Pictures, images, models, gestures are also nonverbal means of communication. A simple nod of head can convey your ‘yes’ or ‘no’ with a wave of hand you can show your disinterestedness. Eyes can transmit feelings like love, hate, anger, sorrow etc. Artists use their art as a means of communication. A painting is a painter’s medium, a photograph is a photographer’s and dance performance is a dancer’s non-verbal medium of communication. Silent thinking is also non-verbal interaction with oneself. Communication between man and animal is mostly non-verbal. A dog wags his tail and licks his master’s hand; a cat cuddles up to its master to show their love. Non verbal communication between man and his environment is a phenomenon you come across every day but after you don’t notice it. In the summer season, a hot sun and warm wind pass on a feeling of discomfort to you, whereas a sky overcast with clouds transmits a mood of joy. This is communication between you and your environment in a non-verbal way.


In the years before World War II mass communication was hardly investigated. Scholars from different academic disciplines like history, sociology, looked into the specific role of the mass medium bringing about changes in society relevant to their discipline. Some basic studies were conducted but it lacked focus and direction. Decades later communication was studied in North American Universities where degree programs were offered in mass communication studies.

The entire subject of communication can be studied through two schools of thought:

  • The Semiotics School
  • The Process School

The Semiotics School

The foundations for semiotics were laid by Morris in 1946, for the theory of languages or symbols. The semiotics school approaches communication as generation of meaning, a mixture of signs, symbols and messages, which the sender wants to convey and expects a specific reaction from the receiver of the messages and the sign itself. This study covers the ways the variety of codes has developed in order to meet the needs of society and culture. The focus of the semiotics school is on the text. He divided it into three areas of general study: syntactic, semantics and pragmatics.

SYNTACTIC: The study of how symbols relate to each other

SEMANTICS: A study of symbol to referent relationship

PRAGMATICS: A study of how symbols relate to the people

The Process school

This school of thought looks at communication as a process, a simple transmission of messages and meanings which the sender wants to convey irrespective of the reaction of the receiver or his interaction. Examples: Works of art, culture and music fall under this category, because messages are not created with any motive, but as an expression of the sender’s feelings or emotions. The receiver is free to interpret the message in his own way. The process school of thought is also called as linear school.

The difference between the two schools of thought

  • The linear process schools and their models give the text no more attention than other stages in the process; while the semiotics school of thought attaches primary importance to the text.
  • The status of the receiver or reader who in semiotics is seen performing a very important role. The reader ascertains meanings to texts.


The simplest definition of a Model is that is an analogue. Models represent system or processes. They are a symbolic way at looking at systems to help us to think about them more lucidly. Models give us an idea of complicated objects or events in a general way. The most important purpose of model building is to assist in the development of more precise theories. Theories are not models and the most fundamental difference between them is that the theory is an explanation and a model is a representation. A model can be constructed to describe a particular form of behavior of which no theory exists or is inadequate.

The Greek philosopher Aristotle’s Model

This model was developed some 2000 years ago. Aristotle includes in this model the 5 essential elements of communication: Speaker, Speech or message, Audience, Effect and Occasion. Because Aristotle remark that communication is rhetoric, he advises the speaker to construct a speech for different audiences and on different occasion to different effects in order to make it effective and of mutual understanding. Due to this advice the model is most applicable for public speaking.

Lasswell’s Model-1948

Lasswell states that in order to understand the process of mass communication one has to understand each of the stages. This model stresses on the effect rather than the message itself. Effect means observable or measurable change in the receiver. It also suggests that any change in the elements will change the effect. Until the 1960’s Lasswell’s questions dominated the scene of Mass Media research who (speaker) -» what message –» channel –» medium –» whom -» audience effect = Communication.

Shannon and Weaver’s Model-1949

This model is also called as the engineering model of communication. It is a clear example of the process school of thought. It is also referred to as the mathematical theory of communication because it provided an approach to the problem in how to send maximum information in a given channel. It introduced the concept of noise for the first time. As engineers during World War II, Shannon and Weaver’s primary concern was to find out the most effective means of human communication.

Newcomb’s Model-1953

This is the first of the models to introduce the role of communication in a society or a social relationship. The primary role according to Newcomb is to maintain equilibrium in a social relationship.

Charles E. Osgood & Apos’s Model- 1954

Here communication is seen as a dynamic process where there is healthy interactive relationship between the source and the receiver.

Wilbur Schramm’s Model

Schramm’s first model proceeded from a simple human communication model to a more complicated model that accounted for the accumulated experiences of two individuals trying to communicate and then to a model that considered human communication with interaction between two individuals. In his second model Schramm introduces the notion that only what is shared in the fields of experience of both source and destination is actually communicated, because only that proportion of the signal is common to both of them. The Third model sees communication as an interactive process with both the receiver and the sender acting as encoder, interpreter, transmitter and receiver of signals.


Since the World War II several studies have been conducted in the field of communication. Most of such studies are based on the impact of communication and media on the human society. One of the earliest studies in this category is the Hypodermic / Bullet Theory.

Hypodermic/ Bullet Theory

This theory was based on the principle that media is all powerful and its consumers are passive and naïve. It further stated messages channelized through media are like magic bullets which not only strikes the audience immediately but also influences them to take up the desired action immediately. i.e. Media X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5.

Two Step Flow of Information

The main authors of this theory were: Paul Lazaefleld, Elihu Katz, Berelson and Hazelduadet. This theory was the first to state that perhaps mass media did not exert the kind of influence on the audience as was generally believed. The audience arrived at decisions not directly under the influence of mass media but more by means of interaction among themselves. This was the finding of a study conducted way back in the 1940’s during U.S presidential elections.


Agenda Setting Theory

The 1st systematic study of Agenda Setting was conducted by Malcom McComb and Donald Shaw during the American Presidential Campaign of 1968; the duo focused on the 100 undecided voters of Chappell Hill who were susceptible to the media’s agenda. They made a content analysis of all the media channels used by residents of Chappell Hill; and found an inter-link between the priorities of issues identified by the media and those identified by the group of respondents.

In another study conducted by G. Rayfunkhouse in the 1960s, an attempt was made to study the relationship between public rating of important issues and media content. He also studied the relationship between media coverage and reality. Rayfunkhouse found that the issues to which the public gave a high ranking were also issues which media gave coverage. Similarly he attributed that media coverage did not correspond to reality.

Reinforcement Theory

This is also called the limited effects model. Klapper who propounded this theory stated that mass media has limited effects on its audience. It merely reinforces existing values and attitudes. Lazarsfeld and Merton further stated that the Mass media cannot be relied upon to work for changes.

Catharisis and Narcosis Theory

  • Narcosis Theory:

This theory was propounded by Lazarsfeld, Merton and Winn. They argue that the media have a “Narcotising dysfunction”. They state that the audiences are so engrossed or nullified during their exposure to mass media particularly audio video media, that it becomes difficult for them to make logical reactions. It engrosses the audience attention to the extent that it prevents them from taking any logical decisions.

  • Catharsis Theory:

This theory was propounded by Semyour Feshbatch. Feshbatch’s experiments in the lab showed that media content particularly non-violence helps to vent out frustration. He studied the same by setting up two groups of respondents in control and experimental setup. Students of both groups were exposed to verbal abuse; later the experimental group was shown a violent film while the other group was not shown the same. Findings indicated that the experimental group respondents had feelings of less hostility then that of the control group.

Theory of Incidental Effects

This theory was formulated by Aldous Huxley. He stated that media effects were limited to copying of style, mannerism etc. Huxley stated that television could be an effective agent of incidental learning among children.

Cultivation Theory / Cultural Indicators Theory

This theory was formulated by George Gebner. Heavy television viewing tends to induce audiences to adopt perception and values which were constantly portrayed in different programs. This phenomenon was more dominant among heavy TV watchers than those who watched less. E.g. Soaps on television inculcate a picture of affluence all around.

Spiral of Silence Theory

This theory was formulated by Noell Neumann. This theory postulates that individuals have a quasi- statistical sense organ by which they determine their opinion represent the minority point of view. In such a case they remain silent. In her analysis of German elections, Neumann states that individuals hate to be isolated from their fellow beings and thus tend to follow the dominant opinion. Thus mass media shapes: as to which opinion is dominant which impressions are increasing which opinions one can utter in public without fear of being isolated.

The Third Person effect

The theory is propounded by W. Phillips Davison. The hypothesis suggests that people tend to overestimate the impact of mass media on others rather than themselves. Mass communication messages will have greater impact on others than on themselves; due to this perception they take action. Thus people are more influenced by media than they really think they are.

Social Learning Theory

The theory is propounded by Albert Bandura. Many effects of mass media can happen through the process of social learning. Human Beings learn things by observation and model behaviors.

Uses and Gratification Theory

The theory is propounded by Elihu Katz; Denis Mcquail and Michale Gurewitch. This theory studied how the audience utilized the media. Based on audience study a set of gratifications were determined. Cognitive needs (acquiring information), affective needs (emotions, pleasure and aesthetic experience), personal integrative needs (strengthening credibility, confidence, status), social integrative need strengthening (contacts with family) and; tension release needs (escape and diversion).

Normative Theories of Press Authoritarian Theory:

The term was first coined by Sibert which refers to an arrangement in which the press is subordinate to state power. This theory is more relevant to repressive or dictatorial regime where there is press censorship.

Free Press Theory:

It is also known as the Libertarian theory. It is based on the fundamental right of an individual to freedom of expression. The same is seen in the 1st amendment to the American constitution. However, Milton, Stuart and Mill states that Press Freedom cannot be provided unrestrained.

Social Responsibility Theory:

The term was first originated in the Hutchins committee report-1947 that was appointed in the U.S. According to it the press had not fulfilled the informational, social and moral needs of the society. It led to the establishment of regulatory bodies like ‘Press Councils’.

Communist Media Theory:

Also known as the Soviet Media theory is based on the basic tenets and Marx and Engels. It envisages that media should be under the control of the working class. There was no private ownership of the media and was required to serve positive functions in the society relating to information, education, motivation and mobilization. According to this theory media must work under the control of the state.


Communication in the organization is the way information gets across from the source (sender) to the destination (receiver) in the organization itself. In the organization communication may or may not need feedback (acknowledgement). In the organization communication is as important as the blood in the body of an organism. There are two categories of communication in the organization. These are one-way and two-waycommunication.

One-way Communication

One-way communication denies the facility to make clarification. Once the information is sent there is no required response or feedback. Transmission of messages and meanings is conveyed irrespective of the reaction. These include for instance information on the notice boards, news bulletin, advertisements, lecture method of teaching, work of art, music, culture etc.

The advantage of one-way communication is that it is simple, saves time and money. Also it does not create a room for direct objection, criticism or compromise. The disadvantage of this type is very dissatisfied to the sender and the receiver has no means to send feedback.

Two-way Communication

This category is built in the two way means of communication. Basically it ensures that the information has received after having feedback. The sender conveys message and expects a specific reaction from the receiver of the messages itself. This communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the message of the sender. In this category we have telephone call, meetings, panel discussions, etc.  The advantage of this is that it needs feedback hence it is democratic. The only disadvantage is time consuming and expensive.


Communication is classified in to two ways according to its nature in the organization. It may be formal or informal.

Formal Communication

Formal communication is common and widely used in the organization and to large extent it is in the written form; to some extent in verbal form. It follows the proper channels of communication in the organization such as Organization Structure or channel chart. The lines of authority are presented into administration chart. It is found also in the organization constitution on power exercise. Meetings, job description, working schedule and performance appraisal are some typical examples of this communication in the organization.

The advantage of formal communication is; it prefers and refers uniformity. The disadvantage is the delay of information because it is strictly adhere to regulations.

Informal Communication

Is the communication that cut across the organizational structure and it is everywhere in the organization. Employers mostly use this widely and very powerful. Sometimes propaganda in one side and gossips, rumor and hearsay in the other side are forms of informal communication. Informal communication can precede information which is formal but due to its nature of delay to follow proper channels; it leaks as rumor or gossip. That is why informal communication is very powerful and preferred mostly in the organization.


Propaganda has been practiced since the earliest days to spread religious or social doctrines. The advancement of mass media like radio, television, newspaper etc. has made it much easier to spread propaganda. Propaganda can be used to spread both truth and untruth. Political propaganda is in widespread use these days. Political parties use it as a weapon of verbal assaults on rival parties. Propaganda can also be used to stir positive response in pubic for a socially beneficial cause. For example national propaganda against illiteracy or medical propaganda against polio or AIDS etc. Propaganda has a mass base which helps it to spread quickly and since it is a planned effort, it works as a strong means of shaping people’s opinion. Propaganda is also put to commercial use. Information is spread about the advantages of buying credit cards or taking loans from banks. You must have seen in the newspapers or watched on television propaganda about various schemes launched by various companies. Whether propaganda is used to spread truth or untruth, it is a masterly weapon of changing people’s opinion. It is characteristically, a planned spread of information and works on the principle of mass-psychology.


Rumor, too, like propaganda is a mass-spread of information. It may be planned in some cases but it generally takes wings on its own. The dictionary meaning of rumor is “common talk, a current story or statement passing from one person to another without any known authority for truth of it.” Rumor spreads through gossip. Therefore, the information spread around is not controlled as it is in propaganda. As the story passes from one mouth to another, it picks up new details which make it more spicy and colorful. Rumor is a rapid means of spreading information because people are willing receivers. Since rumor is an individualized projection of information, it rules out careful monitoring. Hence it often gets out of hand and rolls on mischievously.

The merit of informal communication is that is the quickest and the cheapest method of transmitting and getting information. The demerit of it is the distort of the information as it goes downward. Sometimes it is difficult to manage it especially when it is spread as rumor and can cause misunderstanding.

Channels of Information

This refers how the information is transmitted from the source to the destination. In the organization is the way information is transmitted from one person/management/worker/entity to another. There are three channels of information which are downward, upward andhybrid/mixed channels.

Downward Channels

Here information originates from the top to downward the organization. It is effective and used to transmit organization goals and policies through memos and directives, posters and notice boards and annual reports. It also include employees handbook that gives organization regulations and policies.

Upward Channels

The organization gives employees chance to send their views, suggestions/problems upward through suggestion box, research, exist interviews etc. Other organizations have open door policy that workers are invited to give their views opinion to the organization. Here channels of communication are followed strictly that is why its nature is branded as autocratic method of communication.

Hybrid/mixed Channels

This is the movement of information that can go downward, upward or across. It is the communication that does not adhere to which side the information must go first but in makes sure once the information is released can go in any side of the member in the organization. This channel is subdivided into two channels also; Wheel Communication Method andCycle communication method.   

In wheel communication method, communication passes from the source to the either side of the member in the organisation. information flows  fom the centre to differet part around as wheel movement. Cycle method of communication happens when information pass from and through any side of the member in the organization.


In the context that communication is taking place, or when we talk to people in person or on telephone, or when we write a letter or send an e-mail or when we read a book or listen to radio or watch a program on television we are communicating with the world in which we live. Thus communication is an integral part of our life. Sometimes when communication is performed the information sent is either misunderstood or understood incompletely. In both the cases the purpose of communication is defeated. If the case we assume that the communication is not effective. This means there are some qualities or characteristics which enable communication to be effective as some them are discussed below.

One of the most essential characteristics of an impressive communication is Clarity. Communication must be in simple and sound words, so that listeners can grasp it easily. It must be clear thoughts, disorderly and confused mind cannot deliver good and clear information. Sometimes technical terms may be difficult to some people, so it is suggested to use simple language. Uses of examples to explain and support complex scenarios clarify the message to be understood. To ensure effective communication, information needs to be presented in such a manner that it may be easily received by the receiver.

Common frame of reference and environment

The sender and the receiver should interact at a common level of understanding. This is for instance an agricultural scientist, who speaks to the farmers about new techniques of farming in a science loaded language, may not be understood due to the absence of common level of understanding. Common environment promotes successful communication. People with a similar background receive the intended message without any hassles.

Aim or Goal

At every stage of talk or communication, we are advised to put in mind the Aim or Goal. We must make sure to deduce an acceptable stuff by judging pros and cons impartially. Always we must try to communicate with a broad and practical mind.


The information sent must be correct and exact in its approach. Message should be straight forward clear and not contain ambiguity or mistakes.  Neither too long nor too short. Some good facts should be included in acknowledging the topic.

Mutual Interest

Contents of Communication should be of mutual interest to the sender and the receiver. Communication is likely to breakdown with an unwilling receiver because the receiver’s efforts to receive the information will be minimum. For example, if we discuss Indian Stock market with a farmer who is worried about lack of rain in his village, we will fail to make any headway. The farmer, who is the receiver in this case, has no interest in the ups and downs of the stock market. He will make no effort to receive the information. The communication, therefore, will collapse. Common interests, on the other hand, create common understanding. For example when you see your teacher coming towards the class, you simply shout to your class-mates “Teacher” and the class gets the message that you want to tell them that the teacher is coming and they should stop making a noise.

Information intended to be delivered must maintain a logic link to the sender. It shouldn’t put two opposite faces of coin at a same time. It must be delivered in a structured and planned way.

Style of Expressing

If information is delivered orally (by speech) various speech parameters like pitch, tone, intensity must be controlled according to the environment. It must not be too fast or too slow. Light humor at the right time is always accepted. The deliverer must look straight forward and keep a light smile on the face. In avoidance of using words that show arrogance, feel what you say. It is advised to avoid being too formal instead to be natural and practical.


It is believed that 25% confidence and 25% respect is the product of remarkable personality. If you are delivering information through speech, respect from audiences comes automatically, if you have dressed up well. Be neat, clean, ironed and polished irrespective of the fact that you have dressed up formally or informally. Avoid any casual or unethical looks. These habits are hard to develop but once developed, they become hard to give up. Live your life lively because life is very short.

Common language

Language is the strongest means of verbal communication. Verbal interaction between the sender and the receiver is easy and effective if they speak a common language. The possibilities of incomplete communication are minimized because words, phrases, idioms, proverbs and their nuances are easily understood.

Other characteristics of effective communication include consensus, concreteness, and completeness.


In this paper we concentrate on communication as human phenomena. We come into glance that communication is as old as human life itself. Communication as we have seen is very important as life to human livelihood. It is obvious that the civilization we see today was accompanied by the role of communication. Also it is inevitable for any organization to exist or function without communication. Although formal communication enabled an organization to function and fulfill its objectives, informal communication has its role and very powerful in the organization too. In order communication to be effective it needs some characteristics that some of them are discussed above. But if any information is passed through the sender to the receiver and feedback is obtained that is obviously effective communication.

Use These Eight Steps to Create a Communication Plan

All projects should report status. However, on many projects status reporting is not enough. Those projects need a more holistic communications approach. A Communication Plan (also called a Communications Management Plan) is the way to frame the overall communication approach. The following are the eight steps that will tell you how to create one.

Determine the project stakeholders. In some cases these are stakeholder groups such as a project steering working group. In other cases, there may be a single person such as the sponsor.

Determine the communication needs for each stakeholder. The project manager can categorize the communication needs into three areas.

For each stakeholder, brainstorm how to fulfill the communication need. For each stakeholder, determine the information they need to know, how often they need an update, and the best manner to deliver the information. At this point, be creative. For instance, all stakeholders still need an updated project status. The Steering Committee may need an executive briefing to provide strategic direction every other month. A quarterly newsletter may need to go out to the entire client organization for informational and marketing purposes.

Determine the effort required. Calculate approximately the effort required to create and distribute each of the identified communication options outlined in step 3. Also find out the potential benefit of the communication to the recipient and the project team.

Implement mandatory communications.Regardless of the prioritization, implement any communication options that are mandatory for the project. This will beyond doubt include project Status Reports, but there may also be government-required reports, legal reports, etc.

Prioritize the other communication options. Implement the communication options that provide high value and have need of low effort from the project team. Also evaluate those options that have high value and require a high level of effort from the project team. Some of these might make sense to implement while others may not.

Add the resulting communication activities to the schedule. This will include assigning frequencies, due dates, effort hours and a responsible person(s) for each communication option implemented.

In addition, larger projects can also create a lot of documentation. This documentation can easily get out of control. The process of managing documentation is much easier if the project manager takes care to plan what the documents will look like, where they will be stored and how they will be controlled. This is done in a separate Document Management Plan.

Hiring A New Ad Agency? Here’s Why Chemistry Matters


With so many stellar options available to today’s marketers, choosing an advertising agency can be an overwhelming task. Whether digital, print, social or experiential, advertising is a viable part of a marketing plan.


Hiring a new ad agency? Here’s why chemistry matters.


Getting started


Before deciding on an advertising agency partner (and even before the request for proposal (RFP) process), a company should prepare by considering resources available and what they hope to achieve. For instance, what staff resources are available to you and what are their strengths and weaknesses? You’ll also need to understand your budget limitations. How much money are you willing to dedicate to advertising?


Why chemistry matters


The RFP process will help you understand an agency’s areas of strength, creative style, past successes, as well as practical information like cost and team member responsibilities and strengths. It will be more difficult, however, to understand one important key from an RFP – chemistry. Proper chemistry with your agency is crucial because, at times, you will need to have tough conversations with your agency team. For instance, in cases where creative has missed the mark, financial resources or priorities change, or when deadlines are missed or sensitive information needs to be shared. In any of these cases, you want an agency team you can talk through challenges with.


Additionally, your agency will function as an extension of your team, helping to guide you and partner with you in making decisions that directly affect your brand and the project as a whole. Choosing an agency that is a good cultural fit will serve you well throughout the life of your project, by ensuring a smooth working relationship. For example, if your small company prides itself on having an internal culture that is approachable and nimble, working with an agency that has a more formal communication process, has cumbersome practices or that is inundated with larger clients may not be the best fit.

To assess chemistry, set up face-to-face meetings with the agencies who have risen to the top of the list during the RFP process. You’ll want to make sure the team members with whom you will be working are actually in the meetings so that you can get a feel for the personalities of your exact team. Ask questions to understand how they’ve worked with clients similar to your organization or projects similar in scope. Some additional questions might include:


  • What projects have you worked on that didn’t work? How did you handle it?
  • Tell me about a successful client relationship.
  • What is your client communication process?

Working with an ad agency can be an exciting experience that can help you reach important organizational goals such as gaining brand recognition, increased market share and revenue. In addition to negotiating the technical aspects of an agreement and understanding your potential agency’s areas of expertise and creative process, assess partnership chemistry to get the most out of the relationship.

Success in the Workplace: Your Interests, Personality, and Communication Style Do Matter

The key to finding a successful career is to begin your search in a field about which you are passionate. In order to pursue your true aspirations, it is imperative that you know what type of work suits you best and where your true interests lie. Matters that you feel most passionate about are those in which you will most likely invest yourself wholeheartedly and have a genuine interest to push for progress and success. While this may seem like an elementary concept, in all reality it is too often overlooked. Far too many people find themselves on a career path in which they can find no interest, foresight, or direction.

According to a recent Harris Interactive Survey, only 45 percent of American workers are either satisfied or extremely satisfied with their jobs, 33 percent believe they have reached a dead end in their careers, and a mere 20 percent feel very passionate about their jobs. Knowing your interests and the things you value is essential to choosing where you plan on spending the bulk of your professional life.

In order to examine which career path is appropriate for you, consider taking the Strong Interest Inventory (SII). Developed in 1927 by psychologist E.K. Strong, this inventory has 317 items with three-choice answers that score results by your interest level in the following six general occupational themes:

• Realistic–practical, physical, hands-on, and tool-oriented careers

• Investigative–analytical, intellectual, scientific, and explorative

• Artistic–creative, original, independent, and chaotic careers

• Social–cooperative, supporting, helping, and healing/nurturing careers

• Enterprising–competitive, leadership, and persuasive careers

• Conventional–detail-oriented, organizing, and clerical careers

The SII will help you plan for the many different stages of your career, and helps match your interests with satisfying career opportunities. With over 75 years of research to support its methodology, the SII provides you with basic interest scales, the similarity between your answers and those currently working for 211 career classifications, as well as your personal style.

Getting to Know Yourself

Have you ever worked on a team project and had a lackluster experience? How about an experience where everyone seemed to click and things fell into place? The common thread in any project is, of course, the most important one–the people! You personality helps to set the team dynamics. Possessing a keen understanding of your personality type is a good indicator of what makes you tick, and, more importantly, how to predict how those with whom you work operate and view the world. Know your personality traits, your flaws, and your fortes. This will help you identify areas where you excel naturally, and others where you may need to compromise or shift responsibility to meet the objectives of an on-the-job assignment.

The ABCs of MBTI

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is also a commonly used personality indicator. The MBTI uses psychologist Carl Jung’s theory of personality types, which assumes that variation in your behavior is orderly and consistent, due to basic individualistic differences in how we use perception and judgment. The system classifies respondents in one of following 16 four-letter personality types:

• Extraversion (E) versus Introversion (I)–extroverts focus on the outer world, while introverts focus on their inner world.

• Sensing (S) versus Intuition (N)–sensors place value in information gathered directly, while those who favor intuition place more value on possibilities and patterns with the information they receive.

• Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F)–thinkers make decisions based on logic while feelers first examine the people behind the decision and any special circumstances.

• Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P)–those who judge prefer to make decisions, while those who perceive are open to new information and options.

When you understand your personality type and natural preferences, you can approach your own tasks in a manner that suits your needs. This self-knowledge can be of value to you in the workplace by giving you the expertise to thrive within the organizational culture and the understand the wide variety of personalities you will most likely interact with on a regular basis.

Talk the Talk

No matter which career path you choose, all jobs rely on clear communication at some level. Just as there are many personality types, so are there many communication styles. Knowing your communication style can be a powerful tool in communicating your ideas effectively. According to Southern Illinois University’s Mental Health Web, your communication style falls into one of the following three categories:

• Passive Style–you communicate by putting the rights of others before your own, thereby minimizing your own self-worth, you are a passive communicator. Passive communicators imply that their feelings are not important, and are often apologetic and timid in tone. Non-verbal clues include lack of direct eye contact and poor posture.

• Assertive Style–you communicate by ensuring your rights and maintaining the respect of others’ rights, you are an assertive communicator. Assertive communicators typically exude confidence, maintain eye contact, and have relaxed posture. This type of communicator generally places value in both the communicator’s and the target audience’s message.

• Aggressive Style–you communicate by ensuring your own rights, but neglect others’ rights, you are an aggressive communicator. Aggressive communicators imply that the listener’s opinions are inconsequential and exude a sense of superiority. Typically, these communicators use ‘you’ statements and have rigid posture.

It is important to note that you can adopt different communication styles depending on the audience. By being aware of which communication style you most often favor, you can adjust your style to communicate effectively with your target audience–both in the workplace and in your personal life.

The Impossible Dream?

Regardless of which tools you choose to use to further your self-knowledge, it is important to have a solid sense of self-awareness. This sense of self enables you to establish and maintain meaningful working relationships in your career. Being cognizant of your interests, personality traits, and communication style is a valuable part of this process. In the famous words of Cervantes’ Don Quixote, “make it thy business to know thyself, which is the most difficult lesson in the world.” If you can tackle this lesson, any hurdle you face in your career path will surmountable. With adequate self-knowledge, almost any career goals are possible.

How To Play The Piano To Communicate A Feeling Or Emotion

If you are going to play the piano, it is important that you put everything into it. You don’t want to just play the notes on a page or the chord progressions that you see, but you want the music to touch someone. Playing the piano is definitely technical in nature and it requires some training and talent, but beyond the notes, chords, keys, and rhythms, there is one other thing that you need – emotion. If you try to play the piano without emotion it will seem stilted and lame. So, you need to learn how to play the piano to communicate a feeling or emotion. Here are a few guidelines that can help you to accomplish playing with emotion and feeling.

Forget About Distractions or Life Problems

First of all, if you want to learn how to play the piano to communicate a feeling or emotion, you’ll need to be able to forget about distractions or life problems. Avoid any distractionswhile you are playing and get lost in the music. Don’t get bogged down by personal problems that you are dealing with, but let the emotion inspire you. When you can get above all thedistractions and problems in your life, then you’ll be best able to communicate emotions into your playing.

Let Yourself Go
It’s also important that you let yourself go if you want to communicate a feeling or emotion with the music that you are playing. You can’t just keep your emotions inside or lock them up if you want to play with emotion. You are going to have to let your feelings go and then communicate them with the music. Let everything go and submerse yourself in the music. It should be flowing around you and should become a part of you each time that you play.

Use the Instrument to Communicate

Last of all, if you want to play with emotion, it is important that you learn to use the instrument to communicate. Let the piano communicate your thoughts and emotions for you. Instead of speaking them, just allow the communication to flow out with the instrument. This is important if you want to show emotion and feeling in your playing.

It’s not always so easy to learn how to communicate feeling and emotion with your piano playing. However, it can be done if you work on it. So, make sure that you forget aboutdistractions and problems, let yourself go, and use the piano to communicate those deep emotions and feelings that are so deep within.

Access your Instant Messenger Chat History From Anywhere

Are you chatting a lot from different PCs? Tired of losing your conversation history every time you switch computers? Access your chat history for any instant messenger, from any PC, anywhere in the world with a free service!

If you ever interrupt an important conversation or a friendly chat and want to catch up later, you can now have access to what was previously said, making it easy to restart a conversation from where it stopped. You can access it thanks to the built-in conversation history features of your favorite instant messenger, such as ICQ or MSN Messenger. Your conversations are stored on the hard drive of your computer for your future reference.

But what if you are away from your home computer? Or, what if you chat on several different PCs? In that case, you would have parts of your conversation history stored on different computers, which causes all kinds of problems from simple inconvenience to invasion of your privacy and security leaks. Using your work computer for chatting, when allowed by employers, is particularly prone to this problem. The worst part is that you cannot even synchronize those PCs to have one solid conversation history as this operation is not on the list of most instant messengers!

Keep your conversation history always accessible and save your chat history online with a new service! IM-HISTORY stores your instant messages on secure dedicated servers, and provides easy online access to your chat history from anywhere in the world.

IM-HISTORY ( supports all popular instant messengers, including ICQ, MSN Messenger, Miranda IM, QIP, Skype, Trillian, and Yahoo! Messenger. IM-HISTORY client is easy to install and configure. It detects supported instant messengers automatically, and offers you an option to upload your existing contacts and conversations online. Install IM-HISTORY on all PCs you use for chatting, and consolidate all contacts and scattered conversation parts into a single, solid online archive that is easy to access from any computer. IM-HISTORY stores your sensitive data securely, and provides real-time, 24/7 online access to your information.
Are you using more than one account, or even several different instant messengers? IM-HISTORY provides an option to consolidate all your accounts from all supported instant messengers into a single, easy to access online archive.

IM-HISTORY is here to stay. In the nearest future, it will support even more instant messengers, including AOL Instant Messenger (AIM), GTalk, IChat, Kopete, Pidgin (Gaim), and other popular products. Soon you’ll be able to access your message history from mobile platforms too – imagine using your mobile phone for chatting, and seeing what you said when chatting on a PC!

IM-HISTORY does for the first time what many have been dreaming of. With no real alternatives, there’s just no doubt that any serious IM user would want to have IM-HISTORY on their PC. IM-HISTORY is absolutely free, so download your copy now from and have greater chatting convenience wherever you go!

Send Her An MSN/AIM Instant Message That Will Make Her Panties Wet

How the hell do you turn on a girl… SEXUALLY… through instant messenger conversations?

Sure, some girls just don’t dig the whole “cyber” thing… but how do you know if you’ve got one that does?

Let me teach you how you can figure out if a girl is D.T.C. (Down To Cyber)… and let me teach you how you can convert her into a girl that’s receptive to “cybering”.

Then… get her phone number and invite her over for some REAL sex…

First and foremost… do not attempt these methods unless you’ve built enough trust and attraction FIRST… you need to receive at least seven online indicators of interest before attempting any of this.  And furthermore, these tactics work best for girls that you know in real life already…

I go over these in another article…

But let me tell you first the power of the “;)” emoticon.  No, that isn’t a typo… it’s the WINK emoticon.  The careful and precise usage of this can get you LAID, buddy!  So listen up…

After a few minutes of attraction building, say something like…

“Be right back… don’t miss me TOO much… ;)”

If you’ve built enough trust and if she feels like she knows you well, she’ll be receptive to this.  If not, she’ll just say something like… “lol.  Ok.”

If you get that response, don’t move on…

However, if you do get a response that’s positive… when you come back, say something like… “So you missed me, huh?  You know you love me. ;)”

A lot of women will respond to this in a very sexual manner if you’ve built enough trust.

After, if the response is positive, which it should be… keep escalating!  Start talking about sex… not sex between you two… but sex in general.  Be descriptive.

Did you know that women generally LOVE reading about sex?  Why do you think all those romance novels really get some women going…?

It’s because she fills in the blanks with her imagination.  Escalating a women through text message or instant message is a lot easier than you think…

Check out the full method on how you can ignite your instant messaging game…

Dating and Instant Messaging – How to find and add new MSN contacts

Instant messaging platforms can be boring if you don’t have many contacts, but finding more contacts isn’t always easy. If you are tired of signing into MSN Messenger only to find none of your MSN contacts are online, is the website for you. This excellent service allows you to find new friends quickly and easily by simply sharing a little information about yourself and what you’re looking for. You can add pictures if you would like to get better results and you can browse through other user’s postings to find someone you want to chat with. It’s really that easy.

Instant messaging platforms can be boring if you don’t have many contacts, but finding more contacts isn’t always easy. If you are tired of signing into MSN Messenger only to find none of your MSN contacts are online, is the website for you. This excellent service allows you to find new friends quickly and easily by simply sharing a little information about yourself and what you’re looking for. You can add pictures if you would like to get better results and you can browse through other user’s postings to find someone you want to chat with. It’s really that easy. makes meeting new people easy. Those with slower typing fingers can find chat rooms hard to keep up with and message boards are often too strictly regimented to be any real fun. You might meet people you like talking to only to find out they don’t use a instant message platform you use. That is the real beautiful of Messenger Finder. It is a great way to meet people who are specifically looking for MSN contacts so you don’t have to worry that they don’t have an MSN address or any interest in getting one.

To start using to make new friends, you simply need to register and fill out a quick and easy form. The first step is deciding on a username and password. Make them something you will remember, but avoid using your real name or your MSN contact e-mail address. The second step is just as easy. Fill in your instant messaging platform information, your gender, your birthday and whether or not you have a webcam andmicrophone.

Following registration, you will be sent a confirmation e-mail. Click the link in that e-mail, log in and begin customizing your profile. This where the real fun starts. You have the opportunity to choose a personality type that reflects what you are interested in talking about. You can also link to your Facebook profile and add your Twitter username. You can also choose to share a message with the people that view your profile. This should talk about what you are looking for, what you are interested in chattingabout and perhaps more important, what you aren’t looking for. Take a few minutes to fill in the ‘about me’ section with interesting facts about you, click ‘update my profile’ and you’re done. isn’t only a great way to find new MSN contacts but it’s fun and easy to use too. Sign up and start making friends today!

Effect Of Emotions On Human Behavior And Rational Decision Making

“Emotions determine the quality of our lives.” Paul Ekman.

Making right decisions at right time with controlled emotions is an art. I made so many wrong decisions in my life. Result of which gave me despair, stress, regrets and baffles. It was the time when I had no emotional awareness about dealing with the complicated situations and making intricate judgments. Anger and stress were in my genes. They always hurt me with embarrassment and distress. This trembling behavior made me think of myself, and possible solutions of this disastrous condition. This emotional behavior was a weak part of my life, so it was necessary to fix it.

Emotions play a vital role in making any decision. It’s been observed that hot tempered person takes irrational decisions. At this particular moment when Intensity of emotions can override rational decision making, all the doors of brain are closed, senses and emotion go out of control. And eventually, we take those steps which we had never intended. This is the moment where we have to control our body, brain, senses and emotions.

I started researching about emotions. Too many questions arose in my mind, like,

How to control intensity of emotions?

How to deal with anger and stress?

How to resolve any conflict in a condition of stress?

How to convert negative energy of emotions into positive energy?

And Finally I succeeded in finding out answers of my questions which irritated me all the time. I am going to present step by step in this article.

After reading different books and research papers on Emotions, I have come up to the conclusion that there are two types of emotions.

1-     Negative  Emotions

2-     Positive Emotions

Negative emotions are in the result of uncontrolled stress and anger. These emotions affect our brain and senses, resulting irrational decision making. This is of course going to hurt oneself and to all the people in surroundings. What we have to do in such a critical situation is, to control the intensity of these negative emotions and to convert them into the positive energy/ Positive Emotions.

Once you have confidence in your ability to safely experience any of your emotions, you can think, plan, and engage in a wide range of intellectual activities without completely losing touch with the physical sensations in your body that signal your emotional state.

Lot of research is done by various researchers on the emotions. Many methods are presented to convert negative emotions to positive. One method I am going to present in this article which changed my life and helped me to overcome the intensity of negative emotions.

Here are five key skills, which help in reducing stress and control intensity of emotions and help in effective decision making,

  •  Skill 1: The ability to quickly reduce stress.
  •  Skill 2: The ability to recognize and manage your emotions.
  •  Skill 3: The ability to connect with others using nonverbal communication.
  •  Skill 4: The ability to use humor and play to deal with challenges.
  •  Skill 5: The ability to resolve conflicts positively and with confidence.

Skill 1: The ability to quickly reduce stress.

  • Remain calm and attentive. Calmness is more than just feeling relaxed. Being attentive helps finding out the balance needed to withstand stress.
  • Sit down if you are in standing position, and stay focused to the solution of the problem.
  • Utilize your senses to observe that what makes you comfortable in such a situation. through sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch. But each person responds differently to sensory input, so you need to find things that are soothing to you.
  • Express your feelings instead of bottling them up.
  • Be willing to compromise.
  • Be more assertive.
  • Look at the big picture.
  • Focus on the positive.
  • Learn to forgive.
  • Keep your sense of humor.

Skill 2: The ability to recognize and manage your emotions.

You can’t manage emotions until you know how to manage stress.

  • Tolerate strong feelings, including anger, sadness, fear, disgust, and joy.
  • Pay attention to your emotions and use them to guide your decisions.
  • Be sensitive to the emotions of others.
  • Shut down or shut out intense emotions.

Skill 3: The ability to connect with others, using nonverbal communication.

  • Accurately read other people, including the emotions they’re feeling and the unspoken messages they’re sending.
    • Create trust and transparency in relationships by sending nonverbal signals that match up with your words.
    • Respond with nonverbal cues that show others that you understand, notice, and care.

Skill 4: The ability to use humor and play to deal with challenges.

Laughter has a powerful effect on your health and well-being. A good laugh relieves tension and stress, elevates mood, enhances creativity and problem-solving ability, and provides a quick energy boost.

  • Make sure both partners are in on the joke
  • Use humor to defuse conflict
  • Don’t use humor to cover up other emotions

Skill 5: The ability to resolve conflicts positively and with confidence.

  • Managing and resolving conflict requires emotional maturity, self-control, and empathy.
  • Maintaining and strengthening the relationship, rather than “winning” the argument, should always be your first priority. Be respectful of the other person and his or her viewpoint.
  • Focus on Present.
  • Resolving conflict is impossible if you’re unwilling or unable to forgive.
  • By avoiding disrespectful words and actions, you can resolve the problem faster.
  • When you’re in control of your emotions, you can communicate your needs without threatening, frightening, or punishing others.

These are the outlines from different research papers and books; I have tried to present few important points which helped me recognizing myself, my emotions and how to deal in trembling situations.

References: Do emotions help or hurt decision making? By Kathleen D. Vohs, Roy F. Baumeister, George Loewenstein

Emotional intelligence (EQ) by Jeanne Segal, Ph.D., Melinda Smith, M.A., and Robert Segal, M.A., Ellen Jaffe-Gill, M.A

Emotions Revealed by Paul Ekman

Instant Messaging of the Future: Hike launches ‘Hike Direct’

Instant messaging platform Hike launched a new feature named Hike Direct Hike messenger has introduced Hike Direct that will allow users to chat, exchange stickers, transfer photos and heavy filed of any type without the internet connection.

Hike Direct allows mobile phones to connect directly with one another within a 100 meter radius completely by using the WiFi technology already available in most smartphones today. The latest feature will be available via a latest version of hike, which is available free on the Google Play store starting today. Hike Direct on iOS and Windows will come later this year. It is currently available in beta stage.

The company crossed 70 million users last month with 20 billion messages being exchanged per month.

Kavin Bharti Mittal, founder and CEO of Hike messenger said that these numbers make hike the second largest messaging app in the country. “At a point of time in the country where several people are yet to come online, Hike Direct will connect users in a never before seen revolutionary way. The feature can work without Wi-Fi or mobile data and allow users to send photos, stickers, files and messages to anyone who is also on the Hike network,” Mittal added, “Files as large as 70MB can be sent in over 10 seconds.” Users can then chat and share files directly up to a speed of 40Mbps with low latency, which is comparable to 4G speeds. Mittal said the messaging application was growing at a pace of 100% YOY.

“Hike direct has been built on breakthrough technology that adds a whole new dimension to messaging enabling hikers to chat and share files with their friends without the Internet. Data or no data, Hike will always work,” Kavin Mittal, founder andChief Executive Officer, Hike Messenger, said here at the launch.

Recently, the messaging platform released a feature that would allow users free group calling on the app, connecting up to 100 people at the same time. The Bharti SoftBank-backed messaging app has released a flurry of new features which include free stickers in local languages, data transfer option up to 100MB, and making the platform 4G ready, to expand its consumer base in the country which is over 35 million. Bharti Softbank is a joint venture between Bharti Group and Japan’s SoftBank. Other popular rivals like WhatsApp and Viber, respectively, have a user base of 900 million and over 40 million, respectively.

The android application development company’s messaging platform had also secured $65 million (roughly Rs. 400 crores) in funding in the middle of last year from a group of overseas investors led by Tiger Global Management.

Temporary internet rental

Whatever industry your event is aimed at, it will be essential to have an internet connection.  While most venues will have installed a permanent internet solution, it will be a better choice to investigate getting temporary internet for live events. The venue solutions can be obsolete and more expensive than they need to be. So rental of portable solutions will be less expensive and get you better technology.

Trade Show Internet is the premier service for internet rental services. They have the CONNECT service, which includes the Xirrus internet system and the on-site Network Operation Center to provide real-time network monitoring. They can also serve as your bandwidth service provider, having solutions that range from small cellular networks to fiber optic networks for thousands of users.

Trade Show Internet also provides individual participants the option for WiFi hotspot rental. Their 4G kit is easy to use and allows a few users access to email and the web.

Accommodating Information to Find the Ideal Web Hosting Service

Whether you are maintaining a substantial business or little size organization, a site is more than required gear to enlist the vicinity of your business over the world these days. Quite a bit of its execution relies on upon the picked facilitating Email Hosting India administrations. Along these lines, a facilitating arrangement ought to be picked precisely with much pondering. In a perfect world, you ought to pick the particular case that suits your business as opposed to which costs lesser.

To comprehend concern and issues that spins around facilitating arrangements, we have to comprehend the web facilitating administrations offered by web facilitating supplier.

Chiefly, five sorts of facilitating administrations committed shared, co-area, virtual, oversaw and cloud facilitating administration are accessible in the business sector. Here we are talking about some standard elements of these administrations.

Committed Hosting Service: In Dedicated facilitating arrangement, one server has your site and offers aggregate control. You can have boundless number of spaces. Committed seo services in Mumbai web facilitating offers transporter impartial data transmission facilitating and has most reduced idleness among the sorts of web facilitating administrations advertised. It is the most solid and complete server facilitating arrangement accessible. The committed facilitating administration is moved down by opportune backing on 24X7 premise and individual record administrator.

Shared Web Hosting Solution: In this facilitating, your site shares space with different sites. The transferring velocity of your site can get bit slower as different sites would be sharing the space and capability of the server. In the event that you are offering space to sites which request gigantic data transfer capacity or memory, the execution and activity of your site is defaced. This is the least expensive type of shared web facilitating arrangement accessible. A large portion of the web-online journals and little site are facilitated on shared premise. However, these days the vast majority of the administration suppliers are putting forth brilliant backing by the method for antivirus, committed group for specialized bolster and control board.

Virtual Web Hosting Service: Virtual web facilitating fills the predominant hole in the middle of shared and committed facilitating. It has components of both shared administrations yet at lesser expenses. Since, Virtual Private Server runs its own OS and equipment, clients have super get to and control over site and environment.

Overseen Web Hosting Service: Managed web facilitating is pretty much like a committed facilitating administration yet with no entrance to program records. Server administration is finished by the concerned facilitating administration supplier yet you need to oversee documents and Email hosting services data, which can be troublesome.

Co-area Hosting: In this kind of facilitating, your site is facilitated on a custom server. You can incorporate RAM, circle space, CPU proficiency according to your loving and business need. You can likewise ask for help from the administration supplier or decide to deal with the server all alone. For organizations battling with difficulties of uprising expenses, constrained assets, and turnaround time’s co-area is the best alternative.

Cloud Hosting: As a client you have site, equipment or programming inside a monstrous figuring foundation known as cloud. Utilized as pay-as-you-go administration, you simply need to tap the cloud on the off chance that you need to change the assets you are utilizing at a minute. A cloud facilitating uses multi-joined servers which lessens the downtimes extensively. A cloud based facilitating is expense effective and totally versatile.

Trust this clarifies the standard attributes of web facilitating administrations and will help you to pick the administrations that befit your site and facilitating prerequisite.

Understanding How Google Plus Can Boost Search Engine Ranking

With Google making foray into the social networking arena with Google Plus (G+), website owners need to understand its effect on search engine optimization (SEO). The Google+1 tool is similar to the ‘Like’ button on Facebook, where viewers can vote for the website, which eventually puts the responsibility of making a website popular in the hands of visitors. One of the advantages is that it prevents black hat SEO techniques and promotes White Hat technique, adopted by SEO Company Chicago.


Social factors and search rankings

Although it is too early to determine how Google Plus could influence organic direct make search rankings in the future, some experts conjecture in what direction should SEO efforts be. One of the factors that may prove G+ will positively influence SEO is evident from other sites like Facebook and Twitter. The number of ‘Likes’ or ‘Retweets’ on a link has an impact on the way a web page is indexed in Google. Google has made changes to its real-time search features where the number of ‘retweets’ a link gets are not considered. Nonetheless, the same pattern may continue with Google+ where the results could affect the organic rankings of a web site.

Using Google+ to Achieve Better Rankings

According to Chicago SEO Company, G+ is similar to other social networking sites, even though it is unique. Here are a few tips on how to use Google+ to your advantage.

  • Connect with Google Plus and become an active member
  • Initiate connections via Google authorship
  • Post valuable and informative content on G+
  • Regularly update your About Us web page
  • Have an attractive profile
  • Make yourself available

Google+ is SEO friendly

For most part, Google Plus is highly SEO friendly and has the potential to improve page rankings. If your Facebook and Twitter friends recommend your webpage or blog via G+; your webpage will appear in their Google results. Thus, you gain a larger chunk of audience to sell your products or services.

As your website gains more visibility, your page rank will also improve. Therefore, it is prudent to update your social sites with the Google Plus button suggests Chicago SEO Service. Social networkers want privacy, convenience, ease of integration, and ease of application, which are all factors that can influence your search engine optimization efforts. When users click on the +1 button, it is an indication that the particular search result is relevant to the keyword on which they based their search. With

Google emphasizing more on content being shared on social media sites, it is more likely to validate a blog post, article, photo, or video that has a number of +1 clicks. SEO services are gearing up for the change as each click on a +1 may contribute to Google’s ranking of a page. The challenge for a SEO company will be to ensure that clients’ web content is being shared with +1 users. Since G+ has facilitated several web sites achieve top ranks in their niches, utilize its benefits to optimize your site.


Sexual Health is Related to Our Diet

Are you searching for ways to boost your testosterone levels naturally? Have you looked at your diet? A diet is a great way to help enhance your sex life but sometimes you need supplements like the kind you can get from Testosterone is produced by the body and is not found in the food we eat; however, certain foods lead to testosterone production and better blood circulation, which carries the testosterone to the appropriate organ, while other foods should be avoided. he best source of dietary zinc is meat. The best meat choice is the white meat of chicken. The best fish choice is salmon. For vegetarians, choose peanuts or beans. No fruits that increase testosterone in this category, because plant sources of zinc are harder for the body to use and are not good testosterone food sources.

Improving Sexual Performance Through Supplementation

As a man I often feel the social pressure to perform well sexually. It especially comes from men, we’re all in some kind of competition against each other. Worse yet is the fact that we feel pressured to impress women by pleasing them in bed. This means that we have to be in peak physical condition in order to reach the levels of physical pleasures that we seek. Sometimes this can mean that we’re using supplements such as volume pills. This supplement has been incredible in being able to provide me with a rock hard and lasting erection that has been commented on more than once.

It’s a graphic description but I can only share with what I know. I want you readers, most of you clearly are looking for something like this for themselves, to know that a product like this actually works.

Working Towards a Better Body

I’ve been working on some lifestyle changes that will improve my body. I’m really overweight right now, and I want to have a healthier body so that I’ll be alive to raise my children. I’ve been doing various exercise techniques that my body can handle and I’ve been eating healthier foods and cutting out the fattening stuff. I can feel my body changing and getting better, but I’m still having cravings for the bad foods, and I want to lose more weight. I’ve been hearing about something that can help me called garcinia cambogia.

From what I’ve learned garcinia cambogia is a fruit, which means it must be healthy. What is apparently good about this fruit is what it can become with a little science. The outer part of the fruit is turned into a rich extract, and that extract is made into a dietary supplement.

How to unlock iphone 6 easily?

Apple is one of the most trusted brands of the world. The iphone is surely one of the best products that the company has even manufactured. Millions of users have been using iphone for years and their number is regularly increasing. Due to this huge popularity of iphone, Apple regularly introduces new models of iphone. Each and every new version of iphone has been taken whole heartedly by iphone lovers. The latest offering by Apple is iphone 6. If you are a fan of iphone series, then it is likely that you have already bought the latest version of iphone and are using it. It has got a lots of new features and you should be very happy and satisfied with it. On the flip side, you may need to unlock it. If you are still trying to figure how to Unlock iphone 6 then please read this post.

You may have wondered why some models of phone comes locked? The reason behind it is quite simple. The handset manufacturing company and the mobile network provider company sings an agreement between themselves. Under this agreement, the handset manufacturing company produces certain models of phone, that comes with read to use SIM of the its partner mobile network provider company. As a customer buys a new handset, he will also get a ready to use SIM for that company. In this way, everyone gets benefited in some ways. The handset company sells the handset at a cheaper rate because of the contract, the mobile network service provider company gets new clients as more handsets are sold and the customer gets the handset as a cheaper price that its actual price. The only drawback for the customer is that if he wants to change the mobile network of his iphone in future, then we will first have to unlock iphone 6 plus.

If you are happy with the present mobile network service e provider then you will not require to change it. However, if due to any reason, you have to change it and your iphone is locked then you will not be able to change the mobile network till the iphone gets unlocked. In general, it is better to have an unlocked iphone so that you can freely shift from one mobile network to another as and when you need it. So, even if you do not want to change your present mobile network service provider, it is still suggested that you get your iphone unlocked. Once you do that, you will not have to do things in hurry in case of an emergency.

Many people think that the process of unlocking the iphone is going to be long and daunting. However, all that you have to do is to contact you present mobile network service provider and they will let you know about how to proceed further in this matter. Every mobile network service provider have got their own set of instructions that has to be followed before the iphone can be unlocked. All that you will require to do is to follow the instructions properly and that would be it!

For more information on this subject, please visit following links:

Website URL: –

Twitter handle: – @NinjaUnlock

Facebook page: –

Google+ profile/page:-


The Many Uses of a Smartphone

Many people who have mobile phones might find themselves reluctant to buy a smartphone. Smartphones are typically defined as phones that have features of personal computers and PDAs. Smartphones function based on operating systems. Until 2013, the Symbian operating system was the most popular operating system in the United States and around the world. Smartphones such as the OPPO n3 allow the user to access the Internet, send and receive emails, stream media, and much more. Typically, smartphones feature calendars, address books, clocks, notepads, touchscreens, and cameras.


Smartphones have become very popular for their use as photo cameras and digital video cameras. They allow the user always to have a camera on hand. Many mobile phones have had cameras for years, but these cameras have been increasing in quality. Originally, videos and photos from cameras were very small and featured low pixel count. Now, many smartphones actually allow photos to be taken in RAW format. RAW is the highest possible quality. Typically, it is the format professional photographers use when taking photos. It produces high-quality high-definition images that have to be processed into other more usable forms. Because of that functionality, many new smartphones basically serve as high-end point and shoot cameras. They can actually replace dedicated cameras.

Personal Computers

Personal computers were the first devices to access the World Wide Web using the Internet. However, in certain markets, as many as twenty percent of smartphone users only access the Internet using their phones. They do not even own personal computers. Interestingly, the personal computer seems to be fading from use very slowly as people move towards using their phones for basically all of their needs. Many current smartphones allow users to send and receive messages, send and receive emails, navigate the World Wide Web, and stream media. Basically, they do everything personal computers do.


In the late 1990s, personal digital assistants grew in popularity. They are small digital devices that allow the user to create calendars, write notes, leave notes for others, organize to-do lists, and much more. They replace many low-tech devices. Smartphones have essentially replaced PDAs since they do all of this and more.


One of the major concerns with buying a smartphone is the price. Users are oftentimes very reluctant to buy the phones because of the price of the phone itself and the price of the data plan. Data is the catch-all term for information that one accesses over the Internet. This can be webpages, video, audio, and other types of media. Data is measured in bytes. Typically, a data plan has a prescribed amount of data that one is allowed to access per month. However, wireless internet access usually does not count as data. This allows users to access even more. Using Wi-Fi can keep data prices down. Also, the prices for phones have been dwindling because the phones have become easier and easier to produce. Also, as they have become more popular, they have dropped in price. It is likely they will continue to do so.


Terbaru Kartu Memori Berbasis NFC ( Near Field Comunication )

Master Kids SEO – Terbaru Kartu Memori Berbasis NFC ( Near Field Comunication ), Setelah banyak diterapkan di camera digital Near Field Communication (NFC) sekarang merambah ke card memori. Product SD kartu mula-mula yg di bekali technologi tersebut pekan ini dikenalkan oleh Toshiba.

Terbaru Kartu Memori Berbasis NFC ( Near Field Comunication )
Terbaru Kartu Memori Berbasis NFC ( Near Field Comunication )
Sama Seperti dikutip Kompas Tekno dari PetaPixel, Jumat (9/1/2014) SD Kartu NFC Toshiba mengijinkan pengguna bersama enteng mengintip foto-foto apa saja yg tersimpan dalam card memori bersangkutan, tanpa perlu menggunakan kartu reader maupun camera digital.
Caranya, pass bersama mendekatkan card memori dgn telpon pintar, dulu membuka aplikasi “Memory Kartu Preview” dari Toshiba.
Telephone Seluler pintar Android yg telah di lengkapi bersama feature NFC serta dengan cara automatis dapat menampilkan 16 thumbnail dari poto yg tersimpan di dalam card memori SD kartu NFC.
Tidak Cuma itu, aplikasi Memory Kartu Preview pun dapat menampilkan besar nya lokasi kosong yg tetap tersisa di SD Kartu NFC.
Tehnologi ini diinginkan sanggup menopang fotografer yg kerap bingung soal di card memori mana suatu photo tersimpan.
Biarpun belum menyatakan harga, Toshiba berencana memasarkan card memori SD Kartu NFC buatannya sejak mulai Pebruari akan datang, dgn pilihan kapasitas 8 GB, 16 GB, & 32 GB. Penerapan Android Memory Kartu Preview dapat disalurkan ke Google Play jangka waktu yg sama.

Communication Style  

All countries in the world have their own way of expressing verbal
communication. When we examine the case of Madagascar, people like
communicating indirectly. It is clear that those who are unfamiliar
with this practice have trouble understanding the messages.Culturally, Malagasy people communicate indirectly and inexplicitly
with people. They use this kind of communication when they convey
messages. Malagasy people dislike saying something directly. When
they want to transmit messages, they have to convey it indirectly in
order to show the importance of the message. In addition, when
Malagasy people give a speech, the speaker has to introduce his
lecture by using proverbs and long excuses. For this reason, if the
speaker made mistakes during his speech he is already excused.
Whereas, when there is someone telling a message in a direct way, that
person has a bad attitude. This way of speaking shows the haughtiness
of the speaker. The goal of indirectness is saving face and living
in harmony.

“Miala tsigny, miala fondro raha hiteny eto anatrehareo satria ny
tsigny dia mavesatra; tsy zakan’ny teo aloha ka ombako tsy mahazaka
koa; raha lolohavina ny tsiny dia maha sola loha, raha babena ny tsiny
dia maha fola-damosina ary raha dia kosa ny tsiny dia maha solafaka.”
This means, a speaker excuses themselves in front of an audience
because tsigny (blame) is heavy. Former generations could not bear
carrying it. If you carry it on your head, you will be bald, if you
carry it on your back, your spine will be broken and if step over it
you will trip. They make a long excuse before speaking because they
believe that human beings are not perfect.

To illustrate Malagasy communication, when Malagasy people admonish
their children they narrate a story and then they tell central
messages. Besides, when someone wants to borrow money or tools from
neighbors he or she first tells of the problems—and then the need to
borrow something.

To conclude, conveying messages indirectly is wisdom for Malagasy
people. They do this to keep harmony because we are a collectivist

Communication Styles

I think good communication skills require a high level of self-awareness. Understanding your personal style of communicating will go a long way toward helping you to create good and lasting impressions on others. By becoming more aware of how others perceive you, you can adapt more readily to their styles of communicating. This does not mean you have to be a chameleon, changing with every personality you meet. Instead, you can make another person more comfortable with you by selecting and emphasizing certain behaviors that fit within your personality and resonate with another.

There are four basic styles of communication:

  • Aggressive: By aggressive communication individuals express their feelings and opinions and advocate for their needs in a way that violates the rights of others
  • Passive: It is a communication style in which individuals have developed a pattern of avoiding expressing their opinions or feelings, protecting their rights, and identifying and meeting their needs.
  • Assertive: In this style of communication individuals clearly state their opinions and feelings, and firmly advocate for their rights and needs without violating the rights of others. In contrast to the previous style of communication the assertive communication is born of high self-esteem.
  • Passive-Aggressive: is a communication style in which individuals appear passive on the surface but are really acting out anger in a subtle, indirect, or behind-the-scenes way. So they usually feel powerless, stuck and resentful.

Communication styles



Description : If you choose to communicate like this you will fail to express your feelings, opinions and needs and others are likely to walk over you.


  • Talking in a tone of voice that is hesitant and unsure
  • Saying “yes” when you want to say “no”
  • Covering up what you really feel.
  • Going along with others when you don’t want to.
  • Apologising for almost everything

Message sent:  I don’t care about me, I’m not as important as you.


Description: If you choose to communicate like this you will express you feelings, opinions, and needs in  a way that ignores the rights and feelings of others.


  • Yelling or screaming at someone
  • Using intimidating gestures; finger-pointing; glaring
  • Interrupting or talking over the top of people
  • Blaming others for your problems
  • Being sarcastic, mocking or threatening
  • Using  ‘loaded’ words to start a fight

Message sent: I only care  about me; I’m important but you’re not!


Description: if you choose to communicate like this you will express your feelings, opinions and needs in a way that respects the rights and feelings of others as well as yourself.


  • Listening well; not interrupting when others talk
  • Speaking for yourself (I- statements:- I feel; I think; I believe; I would like)
  • Asking for what you want in a clear, level tone of voice
  • Maintaining good eye contact while you talk
  • Controlling your temper when others are rude

Message sent: I care about me and I care about you; we are both important

Comunication matters

“One cannot not communicate’ is the first axiom by Watzlawick. Silence is communication, just as loud as screaming. Hiding away, not speaking however is analog communication. Because we communicate by saying and naming things, feelings, opinion and by showing them through our behavior. The problem with the analog communication however is that it has several meanings: my tears can be because of laughter, the wind, the situation in Gaza… The context may show that. The problem with the digital communication (speaking , writing, signing and such) is that words can loose their meaning. Example: the humanitarian situation in the Gaza strip is unacceptable. We have heard, read it so often that it has lost its force. There is not consequence. We want the Russians to start pumping gas because it is unconscionable to hold the Europeans hostage in their dispute wit the Ukraine. Well, all shades of diplomatic and less diplomatic expressions have been used and nobody knows what the words really mean, when is ‘unpardonable’ without consequences? ‘Disproportionate violence’ leads to human suffering and the loss of power of our language. Whatever we say, won’t stop the perpetrators of that disproportionate response. And yet, we have to speak up, because not speaking up in this case would be condoning what is happening in Gaza. Ahimsa: do not harm any living being. I thank the Women in Black who silently, but bravely stand in Israel, in Amsterdam, in London,in the Balkan, standing for peace and non-violence

Miss transportation

In the reality of the conflict is the battle to win lose between various groups or individual interests of each other in the organization, conflict or dispute resulting communication and information within the organization did not meet its goals.
Communication is the process of delivering a message (ideas, thoughts) of the party to another party to enable interaction between the two. In general, communication is done through the use of words that can be understood by both parties. Through communication, attitudes and emotions of a person or group of persons can be understood by others.

Also in daily life, and good communication is essential for the interaction between personal and Aloyam between Ataiwaev that occur in Albaah and contrary to prevent Inayeh relations between states масиаракат.Далам is also required good communication so that the relationship can work well and smoothly.
Contact three elements:
A. Russell (interlocutors / sender)
B. Reception News (affordable / receiving)
C. News or information

Examples include communication Voyd Inayeh in relations between states, as was the case between Indonesia and Malaysia. With good communication with Magic Pro Alnascih of cooperation in various fields Рооматес have a positive impact for both countries.

Instead, Miss communications will (errors occur in the process of communication) is causing the failure to achieve the goal or task to achieve. As it happens in the relationship between Indonesia and Australia, where the Australian side in Indonesia, a statement on the “Free State of terrorists,” translated by Australia “Indonesia Pasir Gudang terrorist”. This leads to a negative impact on relations between the two countries.

Two of the above examples we can conclude that communication is very important in many aspects of life. Another example of this relationship in education lecturers and students, with the author, and teaching and learning activities taking place smoothly.

Communication barriers
Forms of communication barriers are classified into four types, these barriers are:

A. Obstacles in the individual
Barriers in the individual factors:
1. Alantqaaa cognition.
2. differences in individual skills and communication).

B. Personal barriers
Factors that cause are:
A. Climate
B. Confidence
C. Credibility
D. Similarity transceiver

C. Regulatory barriers
Factors that cause are:
1. Condition
2. hierarchy transfer
Here’s how to change the hierarchy transmission:
♣ simplify (цоденсатион):
Research shows that the successor to the news often циндерунг or modify news content to deliver the headlines only (not detailed as they are received).
♣ shutdown:
The beneficiaries mysterious News (confused) increased stature to supplement or cover the lack of information.
♣ hope (I hope):
The fact that proves the successor to the information communication often bend toward what they want.
♣ Assembly:
Link events to each other in case already.
3. Size Group
Room 4. restrictions
D. Regulatory barriers
Factors that cause are:
1. Language and understanding
2. Non-verbal signals
3. effective channels
4. Zayed Information
Here’s how to deal with pregnancy Zayed way of information (information-ness):
– Filter:
Each information contained filter according to the specific types of information relevant to the situation.
– Пенгантриан (waiting):
Word processing nes on the priorities where they will reschedule low-priority message.
– Select multiple channels:
It added channels of input and output channels such as adding specialized staff or parallel when decentralization of power.

ESP2 Comunication  

Effective time management help us out for the productivity in our workplace. Therefore, finding articles that will teach us how to do it, sounded helpful and I decided to put one here.

What is “Time Management?”

“Time management” refers to the way that you organize and plan how long you spend on specific activities.
It may seem counter-intuitive to dedicate precious time to learning about time management, instead of using it to get on with your work, but the benefits are enormous:
  • Greater productivity and efficiency.
  • A better professional reputation.
  • Less stress.
  • Increased opportunities for advancement.
  • Greater opportunities to achieve important life and career goals.
Failing to manage your time effectively can have some very undesirable consequences:
  • Missed deadlines.
  • Inefficient work flow.
  • Poor work quality.
  • A poor professional reputation and a stalled career.
  • Higher stress levels.
Spending a little time learning about time-management techniques will have huge benefits now – and throughout your career.

Key Points

Time management is the process of organizing and planning how much time you spend on specific activities. Invest some time in our comprehensive collection of time management articles to learn about managing your own time more efficiently, and save yourself time in the future.

Fashion Comunication & Promotion students went on a trip to London,

Harrods’ Peter Pan display: a bit of fun with fashion and film promotion…
Christmas had arrived in London town with over-sized baubles, fake snow, glitter, lights, fur and fab layered outfits, getting you ready for the real snow!
Video shots were taken of the Christmas displays of the fashion windows for a project in my Digital Technologies module. We had to capture an influential part of London- to do with fashion- and make a three minite film out of it, it was hard to think of an ida at first but i decided to make my London Fashion film on this after seeing the amazing window displays when walking down Oxford Street, Bond Street and even inspirtation from Camden Market and Brick Lane.

Applet to applet comunication

Of course, after a talk demonstrating Applet to JavaScriipt and Applet to Flash communication the first question I had after my JavaOne session completely stumped me: how can 2 Applets on the same page communicate with each other?

Here’s the solution – use the getAppletContext() method on your Applet (or JApplet) to get the context (page) of your applet and then find all the other Applets on the same page:

Enumeration e = this.getAppletContext().getApplets();
while (e.hasMoreElements()) {
  Applet a = (Applet)e.nextElement();
  String name = a.getName();
  System.out.println("Found applet " + name);

Once you have a reference to an Applet instance then you can call any public method on it that you need to.

However, one of the new features in Java 6 Update 10 is to be able to specify that your Applet gets its own instance of the JVM. You can either do this explicitly with the following Applet parameter:

<param name="separate_jvm" value="true">

or your applet will get one by default if it asks for a non-standard heap size, or JNLP support.

If your applet gets its own JVM, then it will not see other Applets on the same page because they are not in its context any more – there is no longer a single global JVM context for the page, which is correct from a technical point of view, but will mean that there doesn’t seem to be a reliable way to enable Applet to Applet communication without using something like JavaScript as a communication bridge between them.

May 1st – Comunication of All-Union Communist party (bolsheviks)


Dear comrades!

On behalf of All-Union Communist party (bolsheviks), on behalf of the working people of Russia and other republics ex-USSR we send to you, dear comrades, fraternal greetings and congratulations on Day of the International solidarity of workers – on 1 May!

The proletariat of Russia meets this day in the conditions of accruing struggle against Medvedev- Putin’s semi-fascist dictatorship which with each hour more and more exposes itself as a mode of the mafia capital and a genocide of people. Despite wild reprisals, the announcement “out of the law of Russia” that is equivalent to the death sentence, leader of AUCP(b) com. Zinaida Smirnova, despite an interdiction of our newspapers and incessant attempts of defeat of mass organizations, bolsheviks of Russia go in the forefront fighters against dictatorship.

2010 is marked black anniversary. This year 20 years since disintegration USSR and a definitive establishment in the Motherland of V.I. Lenin and I.V.Stalin are executed and   the capital authorities. Experience of the first socialist state, experience of victories and socialism crushing defeats continues to keep the urgency for all revolutionary forces of the world. The ?ll-Union Communist party (bolsheviks) addresses to all communist parties and the organizations with the offer of carrying out of corresponding actions in connection with this date. We express readiness to consider the offer on participation of representatives of our party in these actions.

Business Comunication


Here is some understanding of business communication drawn from several sources:

Business communications is any communication that is used to build partnerships, intellectual resources, to promote an idea, a product, service, or an organization, with the goal to create value for businesses that run. Business Communication includes a thorough knowledge of internal and external side of the business. Internal communications, including communications vision (company / enterprise), strategies, plans, culture / corporate culture, values and basic principles contained in the company, employee motivation, and ideas, etc.. External communications including branding, marketing, advertising, customer relations, public relations, media relations, business negotiations, etc.. After all its forms, all these things have the same goal, namely to create a business value (create business value).

Business Communication is communication used in the business world that includes various forms of communication both verbal and nonverbal communication.

Business Communication is a process of exchange of messages or information to achieve effectiveness and efficiency of work product in the structure and organization systems. In the normal business communication, messages should not only be informative but also persuasive, for another party willing to accept an understanding or belief or performing an act or activity.

Business Communication is a process of exchange of messages or information to achieve effectiveness and efficiency of work product in the structure and organization systems. In the normal business communication, messages should not only be informative but also persuasive, for another party willing to accept an understanding or belief or performing an act or activity.

Business communication differ from interpersonal communication and cross cultural communication.Interpersonal communication (interpersonal communications) is a form of communication is commonly found in daily life, hariantara two people or more to reach certain goals. While cross-cultural communication (intercultural / communication) is a form of communication between two people or more, that each – each has a different culture.


The Heading. This contains the return address (usually two or three lines) with the date on the last line.

Sometimes it may be necessary to include a line after the address and before the date for a phone number, fax number, E-mail address, or something similar.

Often a line is skipped between the address and date. That should always be done if the heading is next to the left margin.

It is not necessary to type the return address if you are using stationery with the return address already imprinted. Always include the date.

The Inside Address. This is the address you are sending your letter to. Make it as complete as possible. Include titles and names if you know them.

This is always on the left margin. If an 8½” x 11″ paper is folded in thirds to fit in a standard 9″ business envelope, the inside address can appear through the window in the envelope.

An inside address also helps the recipient route the letter properly and can help should the envelope be damaged and the address become unreadable.

Skip a line after the heading before the inside address. Skip another line after the inside address before the greeting.

The Greeting. It is also called the salutation. The greeting in a business letter is always formal. It normally begins with the word “Dear” and always includes the person’s last name.

It normally has a title. Use a first name only if the title is unclear–for example, you are writing to someone named “Leslie,” but do not know whether the person is male or female. For more on the form of titles, see Titles white name.

The greeting in a business letter always ends in a colon. (You know you are in trouble if you get a letter from a boyfriend or girlfriend and the greeting ends in a colon–it is not going to be friendly.)

The Body. The body is written as text. A business letter is never hand written. Depending on the letter style you choose, paragraphs may be indented. Regardless of format, skip a line between paragraphs.

Skip a line between the greeting and the body. Skip a line between the body and the close.

The Complimentary Close. This short, polite closing ends with a comma. It is either at the left margin or its left edge is in the center, depending on the Business letter style that you use. It begins at the same column the heading does.

The block style is becoming more widely used because there is no indenting to bother with in the whole letter.

The Signature Line. Skip two lines (unless you have unusually wide or narrow lines) and type out the name to be signed. This customarily includes a middle initial, but does not have to. Women may indicate how they wish to be addressed by placingMiss, Mrs., Ms. or similar title in parentheses before their name.

The signature line may include a second line for a title, if appropriate. The term “By direction” in the second line means that a superior is authorizing the signer.

III. Style Of Business Cominication

The Controlling style

Communication styles that are controlling it, is characterized by the presence of one’s will or intent to restrict, compel and regulate behavior, thoughts and responses of others. People who use this communication style is known as a communicator in one direction or one-way communications.

The parties controlling wear this style of communication, more focus on the delivery of the message rather than their efforts to hope the message. They do not have a sense of interest and concern to share the message. They do not have a sense of interest and attention to feedback, unless the feedback or feedback are used for their personal interests. The one-way communicators are not worried about negative views of others, but rather trying to use the authority and power to force others comply with his views.

Yag messages coming from this one-way communicator, not trying to ‘sell’ ideas to be discussed together but rather the attempt to explain to others what he did. The controlling style of communication is often used to persuade others to work and act effectively, and generally in the form of criticism. However demkian, communication styles that are controlling it, not infrequently negative tone that cause others to give a response or a negative response as well.

The Equalitarian style

An important aspect of this communication style is the foundation of equality. The equalitarian style of communication is marked by the enactment of the current spread of verbal messages orally and in writing which is two-way (two-way traffic of communication).

In this communication style, communication acts are conducted openly. This means that each member organization to express ideas or opinions in a relaxed atmosphere, relaxed and informal. In such an atmosphere, allowing each member organization to reach an agreement and mutual understanding.

People who use meaningful communication style similarity, it is the people who have a high caring attitude and the ability of a good relationship with others both in the personal context as well as within the scope of employment. The equalitarian style will facilitate acts of communication within the organization, because this style is effective in maintaining empathy and cooperation, especially in situations to make decisions on a complex problem. This communication style is also a guarantee the actions share / share information among its members within an organization.

The Structuring style

This structured communication style, take advantage of verbal messages in written or verbal order to establish a command to be executed, scheduling tasks and jobs and organizational structure. The sender of the message (sender) is more concerned with the desire to influence others by way of sharing information about organizational goals, work schedules, rules and procedures applicable within the organization.

Stogdill and Coons from The Bureau of Business Research of Ohio State University, found the dimensions of effective leadership, which they named structure or initiating Initiation of Structure. Stogdill and Coons explained to them that the initiator (initiator), an efficient structure are the ones who are able to plan verbal messages to further solidify organizational goals, the framework of the assignment and provide answers to the questions that arise.

The Dynamic style

This dynamic style of communication that has aggressive tendencies, because the sender of the message or the sender understands that action-oriented work environment (action-oriented). The dynamic style of communication is often used by campaigners or the supervisor who took the salesman (salesmen or saleswomen).

The main objective of this aggressive style of communication that is mestimulasi or stimulate workers / employees to work faster and better.This is an effective communication style used in addressing issues that are critical, but with the requirement that employees or subordinates have sufficient capability to overcome these critical problems.

The Relinguishing style

Communication style is more representative of the willingness to accept suggestions, opinions or ideas of others, rather than the desire to give orders, even if the sender of the message (sender) has the right to give orders and control others.

The Withdrawal style

As a result of which appears if this force is used is the weakening of communication acts, meaning there is no desire from the people who use this style to communicate with others, because there are some problems or interpersonal difficulties faced by these people.

In the description of the concrete is when someone says: “I do not want to be involved in this matter.” This statement means that he tries to break away from responsibility, but also indicated a desire to avoid communicating with others. Therefore, this style is not good enough for use in the context of organizational communication.

The general picture obtained from the above description is that the equalitarian style of communication is an ideal communication style.While the other three styles of communication: structuring, dynamic and relinguishing can be used strategically to produce beneficial effects for the organization. And the last two communication styles: controlling and withdrawal have prevented the ongoing trends that are useful interaction

Comunication Skills For Call Center Assistants

Some topics about self-esteem, assertive rights, leadership and promoting empathy

In my case I could be in the group of persons with healthy
self-esteem, because I am not depending on others opinions,
I acknowledge my own worth and I don´t need positive
evaluations for  being well with my self evaluation.  I know that
negative evaluation could influence self-evaluation in such
a way that one can have a high self-esteem or low self-esteem .

The assertive rights are the following: To take full responsability
for his own mistakes, to fight for his own rights and stand for
them without offending anybody else.
They express his ideas, feelings in a mature way and they respect
themselves and  everybody else.  This assertive rights could be
learned and practiced.

Difference between leadership and manipulations is as follows:  the leader knows how to
drive a team for reaching the company´s goals without taking advantage for him. The
manipulation deals with  personal objectives and is negative because take advantage
of somebody else.

For promoting empathetic comunication when I was working with workteams I used to listen to
my coworkers trying to understand their point of view, making constructive comments and
avoiding criticism specially if we might talk about the person behind her back.

Finally, I need to change some aspects in my personality such as perfectionism, being
intolerant, and disregarding the joys, sorrows and struggles of the team.

Erasing the comunication gaps

Caption: So it is pre assumed that every person in the middle east supports terrorism.

Caption: According to this gentleman the hardline Shia state of Iran organized the attack done by the Hardline Salafi organization of Al-Qaida when both cant even unite themselves against Israel(the so called supreme enemy of both) due to hatred against each other.

Being a Pakistani I have felt a direct impact of communication gap as I have often observed people going a bit too far with the stereotypes, many of which are pretty inaccurate to start with, which is why I feel it is important to make an attempt to bridge the comunication gaps between different societies and in this regard my first post is would be to bring out the side of Pakistan not much talked about in the west. So if you are one of the people who think Pakistan is all about bearded men with their veiled child wives living under the rock with their camel then this might be the right place to start learning why you are wrong. Let’s start off with a brief introduction of the country; we can go into more details in the upcoming posts.

Caption:darn I hate it when my grenades fall out of my pocket :(


Brief History:

The land that is currently Pakistan has an extremely rich history, which comes from having witnessed the rise and fall of many important civilizations in the recorded history, including the Neolithic settlements in Mergarh (Balochistan) which date back to 7000 BC and the Indus Valley civilization that dates back to atleast 3000 BC, followed by the indo Aryan kingdoms, conquests by Alexander the great, Arab expansionism, Afghan dynasties, the mighty Mughal empire and at last the British colonial rule. The region has preserved a piece of every era within its diverse culture.

Caption:Excavations from Neo Lithic mergarh,Indus Valley civilization at 7000 BC.
located in South west Pakistan(Balochistan)

Caption:Excavations from Mohenjo Daro, Indus valley civilization at 3000 BC. Located in South east Pakistan(Sindh).

The Lahore fort, constructed by Mughals in 16th century. Perfect example of Mughal architecture.

Cation: Another part of Lahore fort.

The Mohatta palace, built in early 20th century. A perfect example of how the locals adopted the british style of architecture and merged it with the Mughal-Islamic and Indian style of architecture.
It was not until 1935 when Indian National congress got an outright majority in one of the first elections of British India that people got to experience a glimpse of what it might look like to be a minority in India under Congress governed India as it was back then. The era was marked by communal violence, hate crimes, riots, discrimination, and unfavorable deliberate government policies against Muslims.The areas comprising the present day Pakistan have historically been a part of India up till the time of British colonial era, during which tensions between the Hindu Majority and the Muslim minority ran high, resulting in grave concern about the future of Muslims in a Hindu dominated India as the british colonial era drifted towards its last stages. Consequently some influential Muslim leaders started campaigning for protection of Muslim rights through their political party that came to be known as the All India Muslim League. They worked for a united India within or beyond the British rule that protects the rights of her Muslim population, however unfortunately the Muslim league and the Hindu dominated Indian National Congress (the largest party of British India, also called the Congress) never quite came to a common ground on this, creating a crisis that kept on worsening since the early 1920s. By 1927 one of the last major proposals made by Muhammad Ali Jinnah under the banner of Muslim League, known as the Jinnah’s 14 points was rejected by Indian national congress. This point was described by many as ‘parting ways’. However there wasn’t really much Muslim league could do about it in practical terms as the party was not very popular even within the Muslims.

The Congress rule lasted only 2 years and congress resigned in 1937 in protest to involving India in the world war II without asking for approval of Indians. However the era left deep impact of the Indian muslims who started to realize the seriousness of the issue Muslim League had been trying to raise since decades. The day of resignation of congress was celebrated by Muslims as the day of deliverance, and soon afterwards Muslims who now actually started supporting the Muslim League demanded a set of states independent of any central legislative assemblies as they would almost always be congress dominated. Those states may be entirely independent, or under direct but ceremonial British rule (i.e dominion status such as the one given to Australia), or as provinces of Indian Federation with full provincial autonomy. After about 10 years of struggle, that is in 1947 the Muslim territories were given complete independence as one single state, which is now the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

Erasing the comunication gaps

We humans have come a long way from being divided into few primitive settlements spread across the different parts of world to a well-connected, well organized space faring civilization living in a global village. We can send or receive messages across the globe and now even across the solar system within minutes. What happens in one part of the world can be seen by the people from all the other parts of this world right as it happens. YET the communication gaps, misunderstandings and misconceptions between people of different nations have increased instead of decreasing. The technology that was supposed to be bridging these differences appears to have backfired and caused a negative impact instead, giving further rise to the new age social problems like xenophobia, racism and radicalism.


Caption: So it is pre assumed that every person in the middle east supports terrorism.

Caption: According to this gentleman the hardline Shia state of Iran organized the attack done by the Hardline Salafi organization of Al-Qaida when both cant even unite themselves against Israel(the so called supreme enemy of both) due to hatred against each other.

Being a Pakistani I have felt a direct impact of communication gap as I have often observed people going a bit too far with the stereotypes, many of which are pretty inaccurate to start with, which is why I feel it is important to make an attempt to bridge the comunication gaps between different societies and in this regard my first post is would be to bring out the side of Pakistan not much talked about in the west. So if you are one of the people who think Pakistan is all about bearded men with their veiled child wives living under the rock with their camel then this might be the right place to start learning why you are wrong. Let’s start off with a brief introduction of the country; we can go into more details in the upcoming posts.

Caption:darn I hate it when my grenades fall out of my pocket :(


Brief History:

The land that is currently Pakistan has an extremely rich history, which comes from having witnessed the rise and fall of many important civilizations in the recorded history, including the Neolithic settlements in Mergarh (Balochistan) which date back to 7000 BC and the Indus Valley civilization that dates back to atleast 3000 BC, followed by the indo Aryan kingdoms, conquests by Alexander the great, Arab expansionism, Afghan dynasties, the mighty Mughal empire and at last the British colonial rule. The region has preserved a piece of every era within its diverse culture.

Caption:Excavations from Neo Lithic mergarh,Indus Valley civilization at 7000 BC.
located in South west Pakistan(Balochistan)

Caption:Excavations from Mohenjo Daro, Indus valley civilization at 3000 BC. Located in South east Pakistan(Sindh).

The Lahore fort, constructed by Mughals in 16th century. Perfect example of Mughal architecture.

Cation: Another part of Lahore fort.

The Mohatta palace, built in early 20th century. A perfect example of how the locals adopted the british style of architecture and merged it with the Mughal-Islamic and Indian style of architecture.

Jinnah, sitting 3rd from left

The areas comprising the present day Pakistan have historically been a part of India up till the time of British colonial era, during which tensions between the Hindu Majority and the Muslim minority ran high, resulting in grave concern about the future of Muslims in a Hindu dominated India as the british colonial era drifted towards its last stages. Consequently some influential Muslim leaders started campaigning for protection of Muslim rights through their political party that came to be known as the All India Muslim League. They worked for a united India within or beyond the British rule that protects the rights of her Muslim population, however unfortunately the Muslim league and the Hindu dominated Indian National Congress (the largest party of British India, also called the Congress) never quite came to a common ground on this, creating a crisis that kept on worsening since the early 1920s. By 1927 one of the last major proposals made by Muhammad Ali Jinnah under the banner of Muslim League, known as the Jinnah’s 14 points was rejected by Indian national congress. This point was described by many as ‘parting ways’. However there wasn’t really much Muslim league could do about it in practical terms as the party was not very popular even within the Muslims.

It was not until 1935 when Indian National congress got an outright majority in one of the first elections of British India that people got to experience a glimpse of what it might look like to be a minority in India under Congress governed India as it was back then. The era was marked by communal violence, hate crimes, riots, discrimination, and unfavorable deliberate government policies against Muslims.

The Congress rule lasted only 2 years and congress resigned in 1937 in protest to involving India in the world war II without asking for approval of Indians. However the era left deep impact of the Indian muslims who started to realize the seriousness of the issue Muslim League had been trying to raise since decades. The day of resignation of congress was celebrated by Muslims as the day of deliverance, and soon afterwards Muslims who now actually started supporting the Muslim League demanded a set of states independent of any central legislative assemblies as they would almost always be congress dominated. Those states may be entirely independent, or under direct but ceremonial British rule (i.e dominion status such as the one given to Australia), or as provinces of Indian Federation with full provincial autonomy. After about 10 years of struggle, that is in 1947 the Muslim territories were given complete independence as one single state, which is now the Islamic Republic of Pakistan.


Even though Cathal may not be doing that well on the gross motor side of things, his speech and communication in general are coming on leaps and bounds. We could not be happier with him. He is babbling away, he has lots of conversations that we can’t understand and he tries to talk to other children (not to adults…..what he has to say is a big secret and is on a needs to know basis, grown ups don’t need to know). The reason that we can’t understand half of what he is saying, is because we are pretty sure he is babbling in Russian. The variety of sounds he is able to produce is incrediable.

Apart from babbling, he is imitating a huge amount. He can say “READY, STEADY, GO!”, although, when it comes out of his mouth it usually sounds like “eeeddy, deeeddd, OUOUOUOU!”. But he has the intonation and an approximation of the words, and that is the first step. He dosen’t have any clear words yet, but we are getting close.
Over the last three months, using a check list that Downs Ed have published (Vocabulary Checklists and Record Sheets: Checklist 1- First 120 words), I have realised that Cathal understands about 120 words (not all of them published on the checklist, but extra ones I’ve had to add), he can understand and sign 70 words, he immitates 30 words and he can spontaneously say 28 words (we are usually the only ones that understand). He still cannot say any words clearly enough for others to understand. But according to Downs Ed, on average, a child with downs syndrome will be able to learn to understand and sign or say 100 words. I think we are doing pretty well here, and I have to say, when I first ran through the check list and totted up the numbers three months ago, I was very surprised as to how much Cathal actually understood. I’m very proud of my little boy.

A few things have focused us in his speech. The first was something I read very early on in his life, from various sources. Talk, Talk, Talk… about everything to your baby, describe what you are doing, what they are doing, what is around them….keep chatting. Not an easy task for me, I have to say, I tend to be more direct in my language, I get to the point quickly, and once it’s said, that’s it. I would be “quiet” in nature. I have learned to keep talking to Cathal though, and I hope it shows.

Speech and Language therapy is also hugely important, if only to give the parent ideas and focus. Unfortunatly, there is a huge lack of S&L therapists in this country, and not every child gets what they need. We’ve been lucky to be able to avail of it through Cathal’s services and therapy has paid off for us.

Reading a lot! We keep a stack of books by the side of the bed, and usually while I am getting ready to get up, the Dad is reading books to Cathal in our bed. We read him a bed time story every night as part of his bed time routine (at the moment, the favourites areWhere the Wild Things Are, The Very Hungry Caterpillar and Aliens Love Underpants). We label pictures, ask him to point to different characters and objects. We animate the story by screaming along with the Wild Things, or dancing around excited when the Aliens find underpants. This all helps to build understanding and it makes talking and reading a lot of fun.

Recently, we both also completed the Hanen “It takes Two to Talk” course. I cannot recommend it highly enough. It above all gives the parent the tools in facilitating the child’s language development by using a few simple strategies. The one thing that really stuck out for me through the 8 week course, was how I don’t give Cathal enough time to respond. Now, I count to 10, and it works. We both saw a huge leap in his communication very soon after we started the course, maybe because we knew what to look for in him.

Lamh has been another invaluable tool. He is signing more and more all the time. Especially now that we have the Lamh a song DVD. He watches it about 3-4 times a week, he knows all the songs by heart, he signs his own version of the words, and for weeks I end up staring blankly at him while he pats his tummy. I had to sit down with him to watch the entire DVD to figure out that he was signing “animal” completely incorrectly!!! When he pats his tummy now, I know he wants to sing Old Mac Donald..

Business Comunication

  1. Definition of Communication

Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning “to share”) is the activity of conveyinginformation through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behavior. It is the meaningful exchange of information between two or more living creatures.

One definition of communication is “any act by which one person gives to or receives from another person information about that person’s needs, desires, perceptions, knowledge, or affective states. Communication may be intentional or unintentional, may involve conventional or unconventional signals, may take linguistic or non-linguistic forms, and may occur through spoken or other modes.”

Communication requires a sender, a message, and a recipient, although the receiver does not have to be present or aware of the sender’s intent to communicate at the time of communication; thus communication can occur across vast distances in time and space. Communication requires that the communicating parties share an area of communicative commonality. The communication process is complete once the receiver understands the sender’s message.

Communicating with others involves three primary steps:

  • ·      Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the sender. This can be a concept, idea, information, or feelings.
  • ·      Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or other symbols.
  •       Decoding: Lastly, the receiver translates the words or symbols into a concept or information that a person can understand.

There are a variety of verbal and non-verbal forms of communication. These include body language, eye contact, sign language, haptic communication, and chronemics. Other examples aremedia content such as pictures, graphics, sound, and writing. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities also defines the communication to include the display of text, Braille,tactile communication, large print, accessible multimedia, as well as written and plain language, human-reader, augmentative and alternative modes, means and formats of communication, including accessible information and communication technology. Feedback is a critical component of effective communication.

  1. What is business?

A business, also known as an enterprise or a firm, is an organization involved in the trade ofgoods, services, or both to consumers. Businesses are prevalent in capitalist economies, where most of them are privately owned and provide goods and services to customers for profit. Businesses may also be not-for-profit or state-owned. A business owned by multiple individuals may be referred to as a company, although that term also has a more precise meaning.

The etymology of “business” stems from the state of being busy, and implies commercially viable and profitable work. The term “business” has at least three usages, depending on the scope in which it is used. A business can mean a particular organization, while a more generalized usage refers to a particular market sector, i.e. “the music business”. Compound forms such asagribusiness represent subsets of the word’s broadest meaning, which encompasses all the activity by all the suppliers of goods and services.

  1. What is business communication?

Business communication is the specialized branch of general communication that is especially concerned with business activities. When communication takes places among business parties concerning business affairs or business related issues is known as business communication.Business communication is nothing but, the communication between the people in the organization for the purpose of carrying out the business activities.

Business communication encompasses a variety of topics, including marketing, branding, customer relations, consumer behavior, advertising, public relations, corporate communication, interpersonal communication, employee appointment, online communication and event management etc. Some definitions of business communication are as follows:

  1. According to Ricks and Gow, “Business communication is a system that affects change within the total organization.”
  1. According to W. H. Meaning, “The exchange of ideas, news and views in connection with the business among the related parties is called business communication.”
  1. According to Prof. J. Haste, “Communication occurred between two or more businessmen for organizing and administering business efficiently is called business communication.” Meaning of Business communication definition.
  1. According to Brennar, “Business communication is the expression channeling, receiving and interchanging of ides in commerce and industry.”

So, we can conclude that business communication is the process where business related issues, information, functions, news etc. are exchanged between producers, distributors, buyers, sellers, suppliers, competitors, government agencies, business parties etc. for efficiently organizing and administering business.

  1.   Good Communication Chart

According my own opinion, a good communication like in this chart :


When one person communicate /speak to another person he/she sends a message to another , as the diagram shows, the person sending the message (represented as the  triangle on the top right) has toencode their thoughts and feelings. They have to find some words or actions that will be a code for their meaning. The person receiving the message (represented as the rounded rectangle on the right) can’t read the sender’s mind; they have to decode the words or actions to understand what the sender meant. So communication between two people are never get misunderstanding. They can catch the point and comprehend what somebody talk to him/her.

Emoticons and the art of comunication!  

Social networks encourage and allow an informality which is unlikely in personal meetings especially if you’re just meeting someone for the first time, have a work related formal equation or just do not share a comfort level.

Social networks facilitate communication with someone you would like to be friendly, personally or professionally, but you don’t have the chance of meeting often. There is one thing seriously amiss in online communication and that is unable to being determine someone’s tone – because text has no tone!

It has the potential of being disastrous if while communicating informally or humorously, the other person can’t read your tone and may find your comments rude or inappropriate.
This is precisely where emoticons come in the picture – an inseparable part and parcel of online communication that is enough to convey what you’re thinking and amazing free smileys to do just the trick!
Emoticons can convey anything from your usual happy, sad feelings to relaying confusion, disapproval, a sense of humor, compassion, warmth or just a wicked humor!

Emoticons not only are a huge value addition to online communications, sometimes conveying more than words, but for those without the best communication skills, emoticons are a boon as they are more than enough to convey your thoughts and feelings.

Another great thing about emoticons is that one isn’t reluctant in using a smiley in response to someone or just to initiate a conversation. Often one finds that it takes time to come up with the right words and sometimes there is no time!
In times like this, you can resort to emoticons to convey everything you want to without you actually saying anything – and it’s one feature of social networks that we just can’t have enough of!

 Facebook Smiley Emoticons

To spruce up your writings on Facebook so as to attract more people to read your work smileys can be of great help in this effect. Facebook smileys literally bring to life your texts and Facebook status updates and makes them less tedious to read this is so because they caption your emotions in nice animated images. You simply drop in emoticons on you texts.

You can download them using the Sweet IM toolbar at no charges .Emoticon use is not restricted to Facebook alone as you can still use them o ICQ, Yahoo mail and MSN messenger .You can also get them at a cost from different sites but on using the sweet IM toolbar you can extras such as access to hundreds off exciting games .

Use of Facebook smileys makes you express your emotions and feelings in an easy way and makes your chats much more fun. The Facebook smileys range from silly emoticons, angry emoticons, happy emoticons and lot more to choose from all in the aim of making your Facebook posts unique and fun. When using the Sweet IM toolbar you enjoy also search engine services which are a very ideal search tool for all Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox and Google chrome browsers.

Emoticons are regularly updated and added to suit your needs from winks, happy smileys to flashy font texts to add to your posts any time.

Among other benefits of using the Sweet IM Toolbars is that apart from the free emoticons, there is no registration required thus a vast collection of fun emoticons, videos, animations, flash games, backgrounds and so much more exciting stuff to include in your mails and Facebook posts for all your social networking.

Facebook smileys give a whole new edge in upgrading your day to day communication to a totally new level.

Comunication Policy for the Deaf Workplace

  • BSL must be used at all times.
  • Speech may not be used except off-site. Exceptions to this are only a) specific parts of specific jobs, such as answering the telephone or Speech Therapy, and b) non-signers who need to use interpreters.
  • Interpreters are only to be used to enable non-signers to communicate with signers.
  • Private conversations must be conducted in BSL out of sight of other people. Use of speech in order to conceal communication from Deaf people is unethical, ineffective, and rude.
  • Face-to-face meetings should be used in preference to webcam. Webcam in preference to email. Email in preference to text message. Text message in preference to speech.
  • All rooms should have flashing light doorbells and flashing fire alarms.

This post will be adapted as my ire develops.

10 barriers to comunication and how to overcomer tthen

Ways of overcoming barriers to communication
One barrier to communication is physical communication. This is where the time of day or how comfortable they are effects how you communicate with them. The way that we could overcome this barrier is that you should have the meeting at a suitable time of day so that they are not really tired and can concentrate. You should also provide comfy chairs so that they are not complaining about being uncomfortable. A chair that you could to make sure that they are comfortable is. . This is an example of a comfy chair.

Another barrier to communication cultural differences. What this means is that the ethnicity of the speaker and people speaking way effect whether the message is interpreted as the speaker wants it to be. This could also include the language barrier. The way that we can overcome this barrier is you could have someone who speaks there language to interpret for you as you give your presentation. A piece of IT equipment that you can use to help you with this is a translator. This is an example of an IT tool that you could use.

Another barrier to communication is no Verbal communication. This can be a barrier because they may not fully understand what the video/picture is trying to tell them. The way that we can overcome this is that you can speak at appropriate times so that you can keep the audience informed and re assure that they know what is going on. The way that we could help this is that we could make sure you have a decent projector.

Also another barrier is competition. What I mean by this is if there is some background noise or another presentation or something going on near you. The way that you could overcome this is that you could make sure that all the doors are shut. You can also make sure that you are speaking very loudly. You could use a microphone for this to raise your voice. A microphone that I would recommend is ;

Another barrier is a slang or nonstandard English. The way that this could be a barrier is that a certain audience may not understand certain slang words so this could cause confusion. The way that we can overcome this is that you can make sure that you only use 100% proper English. Only use “slang” if you are using it to get the attention of teenagers. Do not use too much of it though.
Also a barrier to communication is body language. People take body language very seriously. If you are not portraying the right body language then you will offend people and they will not listen to you. This can cause them to loose interest and distract others. The way that we can overcome this is that we can make sure our body language is showing that we are confidant and that we know what we are talking about. Show them that you want to tell them. Be enthusiastic.
Another barrier to communication is system design. What I mean by this is a systematic break down like projector breaking or a computer freezing. This can cause your presentation to break down, there attention span to shorten and there for there is a barrier to communication. The way that you can overcome it is that you can be prepared for the fail and make sure that you know your speech well enough to present without the PowerPoint. The IT tool that I would suggest is when presenting use a well-known and trusted computer which will not freeze.
What also can be a barrier to communication are gaps or interruptions. The way that this can be a barrier to communication is if it is stopping and starting the speaker may lose their place and or people may lose interest. The way that we can overcome that is that you can make sure that you ask everybody to turn all their phones off and also make sure that you let everyone who may need to contact you know you are in a meeting/ presentation.
Also so a barrier to communication may be overload. What this is, is where you give them too much information at one time they may not be able to take it all in. The way that we can overcome this is that we can give them a notepad or something to write it down with so that they won’t forget anything. What I would suggest is this ;
Another barrier to communication is UN readable slides or presentation. This can be a barrier to communication because people will now be able to read the information which is a barrier to communication. The way that you can overcome this is make sure that your font is big enough and that the colour is readable on the background you have chosen. Simple is always best.